1. Characteristics of young learners. Their brains are more observable. They have fewer negative attitudes. Keen on enthusiasm-motivated. Learn by doing. Sense of fairness. Activities largely orally based, achievable but sufficiently challenging activities, task types simple enough so that children understand expectations, variety of activities very important, activities should change frequently, mixture of sedentary and active tasks, variety of groupings (individual, pairs, groups, whole class), written activities around the age of eight (other than tracing). Meaning must come first. Frequent concept checking is essential. Language should be relevant, practical, used for communication. Quick to learn words, slow to notice/learn structures. Learn phrases holistically, in chunks. Need to see words and structures recycled over and over in different contexts. recycling + extension: after the first few recyclings, need to extend knowledge of form, meaning, use with each encounter. Have limited, partial understandings of words for some time. Learn syntagmatically: word related to different parts of speech. Need to hear and say many times before writing words. Young learners stops from learning: uncomfortable , depressure, grammar not understood, too long activities, boredom, being over-corrected. Parents involvement.
2.Learning styles. Multiple intelligences. Tasks for young learners. 1. visual (seeing teacher’s face); 2. auditory (hearing). 3. kinaesthetic (moving); 4. tactile (touching). Other learning styles: 1.innovative learners(looks for personal meaning while learning; draw on their values; enjoy social interaction; are cooperative); 2. analytic l.(want to develop intellectually while learning; draw on facts; are patient and reflective; want to know imp.things); 3.common sense l. (want to find solution; value things if they are useful; are kinethetic; are practical and straightforward; want to make things happen); 4. dynamic l. (look for hidden possibilities; judge things by reaction; synthesize info from diff sources; are enthusiastic and adventurous.) Visual/Spatial Intelligence. ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies. Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence. ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence. ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence. ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information. Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence. ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps). Interpersonal Intelligence ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people’s point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation. They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.Intrapersonal Intelligence. ability to self-reflect and be aware of one’s inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses. Activities largely orally based, achievable but sufficiently challenging activities, task types simple enough so that children understand expectations, variety of activities very important, activities should change frequently, mixture of sedentary and active tasks, variety of groupings (individual, pairs, groups, whole class), written activities around the age of eight (other than tracing). Naturalist: The nature lover. Existencial. No intelligence is better than another, avoid categorizing; don’t teach everything in all 9 ways. Try to include each intelligence in in each unit of lesson.
4. Reading as a receptive skill. Theories of reading. Aims and content of teaching reading. Choices of text and tasks. Stages in teaching reading. While listening/reading a few points are important: a language, our previous knowledge; a number of skills we should have; the purpose of reading. It is easier to approach if you have a schema (a syntagmatic knowledge of the world we have experienced) about the topic. >you have to know the words/ notions/ concepts/ vocabulary about the particular topic. >know the genre of the text. >the author of the text: because you may have some thoughts, expectations before reading a text. If the reader and the text coincide then the process of reading comprehension will be faster. >cultural experience. 2main types of reasons for our reading: 1) pleasure, 2)instrumental-reading to achieve some specific aims. Skill: to identify the topic of the text; to predict; skimming - reading for general understanding; scanning -reading for specific info. Study reading - for detailed info., interpreting texts, reading between lines. The choice of a text: language, topic and genre. The choice of a lang.: encourage students not to use dictionaries; usage of visual aids; choose a text of a students’ level; teach new words, phrases that will be included in the text, but not all of them; have a pre-reading discussion with some new words for motivating. Presenting new words and encouraging students to guess; encourage to read for pleasure (extensive reading). Trying to use authentic texts; prepare tasks carefully. A topic and genre: students should be relevant with the text, familiar to them. They will be motivated then. Choose the right topic by giving questioners. Each time diff topic; create interest; activate their schemata, try to vary genres, texts, topics by planning your work. The choice of tasks: prepare the tasks that could encourage, help to understand and motivate students. Tasks should suite the text and student’s level. Tasks should provoke to examine the text; the conditions to do the tasks; appropriate challenge. That is avoiding too easy or too diff texts. Tasks should be realistic, challenging. Allow students to use their creativity, knowledge, give some space to express their ideas and opinion. Pre-while, post reading activities. Pre-r: to motivate students and to prepare for the text reading (unknown voc, content, structure). While r.: done in class, outside the class. Make predictions about the text. Selective reading. Integration of pair knowledge, schemata. Should be encouraged to reread. Make use of context. Reading in chanks (read fast in group words) enhances their comprehension. Paraphrase and interpret text. Post r.: lang.; another activities. Clarify what is not understood. Remember info of the text. To develop greater communicative fluency in the 4 communicative skills, Intensive reading: when we read carefully, slowly. The teacher is the organiser, who tells the purpose, the instructions how to read, to perform a task and how much time is given. The teacher as an observer, a feedback organiser and as a prompter. Extensive reading: for pleasure.
Types of texts: persuasive(which you read with a purpose), informative(they give info), instructive (give instructions) and descriptive(aim-help a reader to imagine sth).TALO - (text as a linguistic object). is used for lang works, esp gr and voc. TAVI - (text as a vehicle for info) info within this text is seen on the overall text. TASP - (text as a stimulas for production). Start with tavi types and then closely go to the talo and finish with tasp.
5. listening. Levels of the listening comprehension: global/contant l. the listener gets the main ideas, message. Dettailed l. when you take a closer look, by listening for the 2nd, 3rd time. Focus on details. Critical/evaluatic/menainglufl l. learners are enough familiar with the text. They understand the message, do activities. Teaching listening comprehension. Informal/semiformal. Pronunciation, voc.-colloquial, informal lang. grammar, noise. Redundancy. Repetition. A learner should be able to respond and express his opinion on the text, be able to ask questions. Listening texts: they should be based on the text/situation which should be realistic or well imitated of it. Listener and speaker can interact with each other. Some students should be given a chance to react and respond on the text. Sometimes a text should be listened only once so that to learn to concentrate. Listening tasks: give clear directions, instructions. Learner should be motivated for a task. Variety of visual aids. Give tasks that could stimulate students’ imagination. Also, you should know the level of your Ss; the level of text; motivating t The main type of listening comprehension activities: use not only recordings, a teacher should improvise while speaking. Encourage to listen the text once. > ask students to respond to on what they heard; observe students’ reaction, their comprehension. They should be encouraged to respond verbally on what they just have heard. >various types of recordings should be used so that students could be familiar with the other type of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar. >negotiate with learners about their tasks; sometimes ask them how many times they want to hear the text - maintain their motivation. Types of l. activities: one that require no specific, clear respoce. E.g. movie. 2. one that require short answers. 3. longer response. 4. extended responses. Activity could be used as a part of larger context.
6. SPEAKING. The aim= enable students to be able to show the ability to communicate with other people using dialogues, monologues, and the variety of diff topics. 4 main components of teaching speaking: 1.Linguistic: the basic one, it comprises 2 smaller components: lang units and speech units. Language unit concern grammar, vocabulary, phonetics. Speech units: lang that is realised in particular situations. Sentence level- students should be able to say a sentence with a correct grammar and vocabulary. Dialogue level- here is a relation between a stimulus and a response. Situation utterance- longer stretch of language. 2.Psychological: this stands for skills, abilities, speech produces, behaviour.3.Methodological: Habit formation- habits are formed through a number of exercises, practice. A) monologue: the ability to choose a content; select appropriate language means; the structure of the content. B) dialogue: a stimulus-response to stimulus. Produce another stimulus. Extend.4.Pragmatic: mostly deals with a teacher who should be able to use materials, aids that are available, ready-made. The ability to design our own activities, tasks, teaching materials. Teaching how to learn so that learner could become independent. TEACHING MONOLOGUE: 1. SENTENCE level: procedures: a) PPP. Students perform various exercises according to the pattern, substitution, transformation, completion. 2. utterance level: combining sentences into logical sequence. 3. discourse l.: having the ability to use the language more fluently and naturally. Teacher should encourage students to talk by giving a topic, stimulus, motivation. TEACHING A DIALOGUE/CONVERSATION: a) the skills: the rules of conversation cannot be clearly stated, still there are some: knowing who will speak, when and for how long. B) the content. There are 4 elements: 1. conversational rule and structure (how conversation is organized): turn taking, interpreting (polite way, as not to distrust the dialogue); to pick shift; pairs’ stimulus and response. E.g. an invitation and a response to it, a compliment. Preferred answer: when it accept the invitation and dispreferred answer: when we don’t accept. >closing: how we finish the conversation. 2. Conversation strategies: >message adjustment or message avoidance (what kind of topics are avoided). >paraphrasing (ideas); >approximation (explaining what you mean); >appealing for help in the conversation. >asking to repeat; >asking for clarification; >summarizing; >checking the interlocutor’s understanding; >using fillers or hesitation devices. 3. social or cultural context: >know the interlocutor’s status; social situation; social norms of appropriate lang use; cross-cultural differences. THE STAGES: 1. the receptive stage: listening to a dialogue, using aids to help understood the content. 2. reproductive stage: types: immediate (reproduce a dialogue in imitation while producing it); delayed (when students learn a dialogue by heart at home and in class they perform it); modified (exchanging part of the content while applying their own ideas). The aim of these stages: 1 and 2 to establish dialogue patterns in it’s memory; to form the habit. 3 stage: constructive-creative. Creating a dialogue on the basis of a given topic; using learnt structures, vocabulary, encouraging students to use new info.
7. WRITING. The content of teaching wr.: 1. linguistic component. Lang units; how to wr letters, join them into words. (handwriting); capitalization and punctuation rules. Realization of lang units, to express ideas. A sentence level, paragraph l., text l., composition l. 2. Psychological component: patterns of behaviour. How to organise your ideas into texts. 3. Paradigmatic c.: a) the product of writing: the form of the work. The function of the text. B) style and register: who is going to read and in what situation. C) Assessment. 4. Methodogical c.: personal approach. The product writing: aim= to encourage the student to mimic a model text. >analyse the text’s model. Draw some attention to particular parts and rules of writing. >practice to write. >organization of ideas. The structure is more important than the content. imitate model text, organisation of ideas more important than ideas themselves, one draft, features highlighted including controlled practise of those features, individual, emphasis on end product. The process writing: aim= the usage of the text and text itself. >generating ideas, >group and select ideas, >text as a resource for comparison, ideas as starting point, more than one draft (while wr.: the content. Refine your ideas. The second draft. Post wr.: read for mistakes (spelling, grammar)), more global, focus on purpose, theme, text type, i.e., reader is emphasised,collaborative,emphasis on creative process. Stages: make a spidergram. EVALUATION: 1.get info if what student has or has not learned. 2. determine why the particular results were or were not achieved. 3. plan further learning and teaching with respect to the results. Assessment can be: interview, questioner, observation. Assessment criteria: 1. the content, >achievement of the communicative aim; are they writing up to the topic; coherence, relevance of arguments, details and examples; the use of the text; organization/ structure/ layout - ability to divide text into parts, to connect parts of the text. >lang used - variety of grammar and lexical forms. The usefulness of these forms. Degree of difficulty; correctness; register; spelling; punctuation.
8. GRAMMAR: the aim-is to reach the threshold level which means that learners have to master gr in such a way that gr could help a learner to convey the ideas in understandable way. >to develop a habit (of using proper tenses). >the older learners need more complicated topics. This means they need more complicated gr. Content: wherever you teach a grammatic item you have to mind: the form, the meaning, the usage. Approaches: there are 2 main ways that gr can be taught and learnt. 1. covered/hidden: the teacher helps students to acquire and do not draw conscious attention. Students master grammar themselves, subconsciously. 2.Overt:Is when teacher openly presents gr rules and explanations/ discuss when to use it, etc.( it can be done in 2 ways). Stages: PPP. Presentation: place and time when students are introduced to the form, meaning in gr lang. a good presentation must be clear, lively and interesting. It should be productive. Two main aims to carry presentation: teacher led presentation. Inductive - start with the examples and then more on to the rules. Deductive - give rules and examples. Discovery techniques: students work the rules themselves. Presentation must be personalized. Speak about real ppl in real situations. Use charts, diagrams, dialogues. PRACTICE: involve students into activities. Repetition (drills)of grammar items. Should be meaningful repetition about themselves. Interaction activities-situation in which students have to change info using required items. Activities involving personalities: discuss topics which concern their personal life. Games-gr games. Implications for teaching grammar in communicative approach. 1. language functions. Lang is used to do some things in order to perform certain functions. The sentence that you say contain a specific gr items, elements. 2. activities. You present a new gr item (that is more complex) a lot of practise at the beginning. They must exchange ideas. That lesson have to be communicative. Role play_games. Discussion_projects. Problems in teaching gr.: a clash between function, meaning and form. The same form can have several meanings. The same or similar meanings can be expressed by diff.forms. 2. some differences between the foreign lang and native lang. 3.exeptions to rules. The word order in English.
9. VOCABULARY: The structure of the lang is the skeleton and the voc is the flesh. It is important to say a proper word than to say it grammatically correctly. Selecting vocabulary to learn: 1.general principal. More concrete w should be taught at lower levels and practise with age words should become more abstract. 2.frequency p. words used by most native speakers must be taught first. 3.Coverage. words with a lot of meanings.(go->fly, drive..).4. points which depend on topic. The words students want to learn. Content of teaching voc.: form: learning what part of speech they belong to. Learning and teaching parts of words. Spelling and pronunciation. Meaning: meaning in context (to use correct meaning in a specific context).sense relations. You learn synonyms, antonyms and meanings in relation to other words. Use: collocations. Learning with words go with each other (head+ache). Metaphor and idioms. They require indirect meanings. Register and style. Learners have to learn to use appropriate w.depending on social, stylistic, topical context. How to learn words: acquire to learn the w which are used in a classroom. Which appear in reading and listening. Look it up themselves. students must have some kind of relationship to these words. Useful and practical to use. Must enjoy the process of learning. They may like the words and sounds of them. Students must do sth with the words. Teacher led presentation: demonstration of the form. Start with context and show the relation. Explanation of the meaning and use. Direct methods-visual presentation. That you can demonstrate real objects. Use actions, gestures. Translation method. Based on verbal presentation. Use equivalent in native lang. STUDENTS: are given examples of lang and they have to find out themselves. May involve in some analytical studying to solve some problems. They are asked to use their previous knowledge. Collocation. What connotations the words have. To work out the meaning. Students often do this in groups, more enjoyable. 4main types: preview, matching (with pictures, definitions). Text studying (e.g. find words in a text that refer with “fear”).problem solving. Factors for the choice of techniques: 1. psychological f. the teacher has to take into consideration the age and the intelligence. 2.pedagodical f. the time of the lesson is important. 3.the linguistic f. the difficulty of the vocabulary item itself. Use methods to expalain it properly. PRACTICE: THE student must perform various exercises. The skill to choose a proper word. Finding necessary words among all. / from your mind. Insert a necessary word in the exercise. At both of these stages teacher must use all kinds of vocabulary. Testing activities and see how students assimilate the meaning of the words.
10. pronunciation. phonology is a system, learners cannot achieve a natural rhythm in speech without understanding the stress-timed nature of the language and the interrelated components of stress, connected speech and intonation. Attention to phonology begins at lower levels and builds up as learners progress towards fluency.Production:Drills;Physical movement (finger-clicking, clapping, tapping, jumping) in time to the rhythm of the sentence .Focus on stress in short dialogues (kn you? Yes I can). Making short dialogues, paying attention to stress and rhythm (How often do you speak English? Once in a while). Headlines, notes and memos (build the rhythm with content words, then add the rest). Reading out short sentences with only the stressed words (How…come…school?), then add the other words without slowing down.Reading aloud (with plenty of rehearsal time).Focus on short utterances with distinctive stress and intonation patterns and a specific rhythm (long numbers, ‘phone numbers, football results).Jazz chants.Poems, rhymes and tongue-twisters (limericks are good at higher levels).Songs. (the rhythm of English lends itself to rock and pop music, while rap involves fitting words into distinct beat). Pronunciation work has traditionally taken a secondary role in language teaching to work on grammar and more recently lexis. Pronunciation work can be kept simple and employ exercises which are both accessible and enjoyable for students, whatever their level. Whenever students do a freer speaking activity, the main aim is usually for them
to develop their spoken fluency in the language. However, the activity also serves to work on students’ accuracy through the feedback we give them on their use of language.Phonemic symbols represent the sounds of the English language. Using them can be a valuable tool to improving your students’ pronunciation. There are many ways of helping students to achieve better pronunciation. One of these, of course, is to expose them to an endless stream of well-pronounced English, since listening while being engaged with the task of listening is one of the most powerful ways of helping students to improve their speaking. But there are other ways too: everything from drilling (in various different ways) to minimal pairs, exercises designed to address the relationship between sounds and spelling, taping students production, and even the exploitation of reading
11. CLIL: importance: With increased contact between countries, there will be an increase in the need for communicative skills in a second or third language. Languages will play a key role in curricula across Europe. Attention needs to be given to the training of teachers and the development of frameworks and methods which will improve the quality of language education. How does CLIL work?The basis of CLIL is that content subjects are taught and learnt in a language which is not the mother tongue of the learners.Knowledge of the language becomes the means of learning content. Language is integrated into the broad curriculum.Learning is improved through increased motivation and the study of natural language seen in context. When learners are interested in a topic they are motivated to acquire language to communicate.CLIL is based on language acquisition rather than enforced learning. Language is seen in real-life situations in which students can acquire the language. This is natural language development which builds on other forms of learning. CLIL is long-term learning. Students become academically proficient in English after 5-7 years in a good bilingual programme.Fluency is more important than accuracy and errors are a natural part of language learning. Learners develop fluency in English by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes. Reading is the essential skill. The advantages of CLIL:CLIL helps to:Introduce the wider cultural context. Prepare for internationalisation. Improve overall and specific language competence. Prepare for future studies and / or working life. Develop multilingual interests and attitudes. Increase learner motivation. Where is CLIL happening?North America,Spain, Wales, France. Euro-funded projects show that CLIL or similar systems are being applied in some countries, but are not part of teacher training programmes. The future of CLIL:There is no doubt that learning a language and learning through a language are concurrent processes, but implementing CLIL requires a rethink of the traditional concepts of the language classroom and the language teacher. The immediate obstacles seem to be:Subject teachers may be unwilling to take on the responsibility. Most current CLIL programmes are experimental. CLIL is based on language acquisition, but in monolingual situations, a good deal of conscious learning is involved, demanding skills from the subject teacher. The lack of CLIL teacher-training programmes. Some aspects of CLIL are unnatural; such as gaining the knowledge of the literature and culture of the learner’s own country through a second language. In a CLIL lesson, all four language skills should be combined. The skills are seen thus:Listening is a normal input activity, vital for language learning.Reading, using meaningful material, is the major source of input.Speaking focuses on fluency. Accuracy is seen as subordinate.Writing is a series of lexical activities through which grammar is recycled. For teachers from an ELT background, CLIL lessons exhibit the following characteristics: Integrate language and skills, and receptive and productive skills. Lessons are often based on reading or listening texts / passages. The language focus in a lesson does not consider structural grading. Language is functional and dictated by the context of the subject .Language is approached lexically rather than grammatically.Learner styles are taken into account in task types. In many ways, then, a CLIL lesson is similar to an ELT integrated skills lesson, except that it includes exploration of language, is delivered by a teacher versed in CLIL methodology and is based on material directly related to a content-based subject. Both content and language are explored in a CLIL lesson. A CLIL ‘approach’ is not far removed from humanistic, communicative and lexical approaches in ELT, and aims to guide language
processing and supports language production in the same way that an ELT course would by teaching techniques for exploiting reading or listening texts and structures for supporting spoken or written language.
9.Lesson planning:components of lesson planning. Reasons for Planning Lessons: Divide study material over a period of time,Arrange study material in such a way as to allow students to build on existing knowledge and experience, Use instruction time efficiently ,Help to vary instruction - enough varied, motivating, stimulating tasks, skills, learner styles, intelligences, materials ,Give confidence to the teacher - know the activities, prevent problems, pla Stages of Planning Instructionn remedy. A unit of instruction…… consists of a series of lessons that are connected to each other by a theme, a grammatical point or a language function. They ought to allow learners not only to learn / practise a language, but also to use it meaningfully, in a communicative manner. Characteristics of Thematic Units: incorporate real-life situations in instruction ,integrate all four language skills communicatively ,encourage learner autonomy or learner choice ,use experiential learning (learning by doing) ,apply project-based learning.
Five Steps for Planning a Thematic Unit: 1.choose a theme that is meaningful, relevant and interesting to learners( be motivating, interesting and relevant to the learners (and teacher) ,connect to real-life situations, including content from across the curriculum,cater for various learning styles and intelligences, provide a context for meaningful, authentic discourse and interaction, facilitate the development of appropriate, useful real-world language functions and communication modes ,connect to the target culture(s) where possible ) brainstorm ideas that can incorporate real-life situations and tasks (use a web, a chart, a list…) choose, organise and order the activities (vary the tasks and language skills ,choose activities that are most useful to your learners ,order the tasks to mirror the real-life application of the tasks, in a logical sequence so that every following lesson builds on the knowledge gained and the skills developed in the previous lesson(s), connect one activity to the next considering the difficulty - easy to difficult, receptive to productive skills ,sequence / order the content so as to recycle the language in focus and scaffold learning). incorporate projects that can encourage learner choice and autonomy (focus on real-life matter,are student-centered and cooperative, integrate skills authentically, have a real purpose, are motivating, incorporate all / most of the language learnt in the whole unit. . Planning an Individual Lesson: Topic ,Objectives ,Stages / Tasks ,Materials, aids ,Possible difficulties ,Involve your learners in the process of planning! Objectives of a lesson: An objective of a lesson is what a learner will be able to do by the end of the lesson what s/he could not do at its beginning. The planning starts here!.. An effective objective is… :Specific ,Measurable ,Achievable ,Realistic ,Time limited, Lesson objectives are formulated using the verbs from different levels of Bloom’s taxonomy: Knowledge - repeat, name, recognise, describe, list…Comprehension - explain, give arguments and examples… Application - construct, use, make a model… Analysis - divide into parts, compare, contrast… Synthesis - summarize, organise, create a project, conclude… Evaluation - make decisions, evaluate, criticise…
Possible difficulties: predict, prevent and solve: Examples:
Learners lack CBs - share, dictate, do without ,Few learners participate - work in pairs ,
No internet connection - have handouts or other material, check equipment and websites beforehand ,Learners haven’t done homework ,Some learners misbehave ,Equipment doesn’t work ,Learners find a task or a text too difficult etc.
12.Student/teacher portfolios. A language learner’s portfolio is a purposive collection of a student’s works over time that shows the stages of the owner’ growth and that involves both the teacher and the learner in making judgments about the latter’s development. It can be easily incorporated into the daily activities in and outside classroom. This tool: focuses on documenting an individual student’s growth over time, rather than on comparing students with one another, emphasizes the student’s strengths (what they know and can do with the Language) rather than weaknesses, considers learning styles, language proficiencies, cultural and educational backgrounds, allows for authentic assessment because it is based on activities that represent actual progress towards learning goals and reflect tasks typical of classrooms and real-life settings, encourage the learner to reflect on their growth and the various factors that influence it, and allow them to provide evidence of self-reflection, i.e. portfolios focus on the process of learning. The importance of a reflective element in portfolios: “By having reflection as part of the portfolio process, students are asked to think about their needs, goals, weaknesses, and strengths in language learning. They are also asked to select their best work and to explain why that work was beneficial to them. By having a reflective element in a portfolio, the process is more personalized. Learner reflection allows students to contribute to their own insights about their learning to the assessment process. It enhances feelings of learner ownership of their work and increases opportunities for dialogs between students and teachers about curricular goals and learner progress. (…) “Without reflection, the portfolio remains ‘a folder of all my papers’”. “The European Language Portfolio” is developed following “The Common European Framework of References for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment” (Bendrieji Europos kalbų metmenys: mokymasis, mokymas, vertinimas, 2009) and the 6 levels of language skills presented there. ELP consists of three parts: Language Pasport (Kalbų pasas, translated into Lithuanian in 2005) records the learner’s language skills, qualifications as well as language learning and intercultural experiences, certificates and diplomas; this document is recognized in Europe and is useful when trying to enrol in an education or training programme, looking for a job, or getting experience abroad; www.europass.lt and www.smpf.lt, Language Biography (Kalbų biografija) allows to record the learner’s progress by filling in self-evaluation grids and tables, Dossier (Dosjė) contains materials which document and illustrate experiences and achievements, e.g. best essays, tests, documents acknowledging your participation in courses, various programmes, projects, contests etc, diplomas, prizes. A portfolio for (student) teachers is a tool that: helps (student) teachers to reflect on the knowledge and skills they need to learn / teach languages, enables them to assess their own didactic competencies and, then, monitor, evaluate and record their progress during their teacher education / teaching career, provides evidence of (professional) development necessary to receive a higher qualification degree / another job etc, promotes and provides practice in life-long learning (LLL) techniques, develops learner /teacher-autonomy. EPOSTL - European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages”: reflects progress, provides evidence of progress made, encourages to think about progress and development as a learner / teacher etc., records examples of work relevant to language learning / teacher education and professional development. What to put there? A variety of artifacts from different sources and people involved, organized in a clear meaningful way: evidence from lessons conducted, lesson observation and evaluation, detailed reports, comments, diary entries, course assignments, lesson plans, teaching materials attached to lesson plans, mentor’s / tutor’s feedback and evaluation forms, learners’ feedback / comments, self-evaluation forms, reports, videos etc.
13.Classroom dynamics and management. Classroom management refers to all the things teachers do to ORGANIZE students, space, time and materials so that learning can take place. classroom layouts: traditional, horseshoe, learning centers (mazos grupeles prie atskiru stalu), desks in groups, a circle. ORGANISING STUDENTS
Proactive teaching vs reactive teaching: Reacting to situations as they occur, dealing with problems as they come up. Proactive teaching - being prepared and in control; knowing when and how things happen in class: explaining the rules establishing routines and following them preparing in advance planning lessons properly beginning a lesson with a clear focus on learning. Techniques for Better Classroom Management: Focusing Direct instruction ,Monitoring ,Modelling ,Non-verbal cuing ,Environmental control ,Low-profile intervention ,Assertive discipline ,Assertive I-messages ,Humanistic I-messages ,Positive discipline. Monitoring - listening to the learners for their accuracy and fluency, or checking to see if activities are going according to the plan and that the learners are ‘on task‘. When to monitor: during speaking activities ,during written practice exercises ,guided practice activities, esp. pairwork . why monitor? to be aware of individual students and the whole class, to ensure that learners are on task ,to micro-teach ,to add input ,to listen for errors in the target language and assess the development of fluency ,to assess the task ,to plan ,to maintain discipline. How to monitor? Unobtrusive monitoring is most effective: move chairs away from walls, have a clear route around the classroom ,arrange seating so that all students are visible from wherever the teacher is positioned ,monitor pairs or groups randomly ,don’t spend too much time with one individual, pair or group, and make sure that all learners are monitored ,rather than standing or crouching, sit with pairs or groups. Techniques to avoid… (they may work several times, but not over long haul): raising voice, yelling ,saying “I’m the boss here”, acting superior ,insisting on having the last word ,using tense body language, such as rigid posture or clenched hands, using degrading, insulting, humiliating, or embarrassing put-downs ,using sarcasm ,attacking the student’s character ,using physical force ,drawing unrelated persons into the conflict ,having a double standard - making students do what I say, not what I do,preaching ,backing the student into a corner ,pleading or bribing ,bringing up unrelated events ,generalizing about students “All you kids are the same” ,making unsubstantiated accusations ,holding a grudge ,nagging ,throwing a temper tantrum ,mimicking the student ,making comparisons with siblings or other students ,commanding, demanding, dominating
14. classroom English.
15. developing critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is goal-oriented thinking that requires cognitive strategies and certain skills necessary to achieve the sought-for objective. It combines information search, analysis of ideas, expressing varied opinions, problem solving, argumentation, making decisions and formulating independent opinions. What is not critical thinking: memorizing, comprehension(supratimas), creative/intuitive thinking. What is critical thinking: Independent, Information is the point of departure, not the destination, Starts from questions / issues that require solutions, Provide arguments, Social activity. A Lesson to Develop Critical Thinking Skills: PLANNING THE LESSON:Motivation, Objectives ,Important conditions ,Assessment ,Aids and time ,Grouping. THE LESSON: Evocation (žadinimas ir į(si)traukimas) ,Realisation of meaning (prasmės suvokimas) ,Reflection (apmąstymas) Conclusions. Activities: Evocation: Preview (išankstinis išdėstymas) ,Asking directing questions ,Brainstorm in pairs and with whole group ,Web / Spidogram ,Predicting ,Key terms ,Reordering events/parts of a text ,Free writing ,I know - I’d like to know - I’ve learnt,Realisation of meaning: Questions (yes/no) or hints ,Marking the text ,Asking questions ,A cooperative test ,Correcting a text with errors ,Peer teaching ,Double diary. AFTER THE LESSON: - Continuation. Creating Favourable Conditions in Class: Allow time ,Encourage initiative ,Create a free and tolerant environment ,Encourage sts to share knowledge and opinions. Create interest and maintain curiosity by asking critical / open-ended questions and praising sts who ask such questions:Short and clear ,Ask one thing at a time ,Related to the topic under discussion ,Use vocabulary understood by sts ,Ask open-ended questions ,From general to specific ,Avoid yes-no questions ,Require sts to use own experience ,Ask sts to explain an attitude ,”Why do you think so?” , Avoid questions sts will not be able to answer.
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