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english language history

Define the term (give examples):

1) Merger – is a linguistic change when two or more language elements (sound, form, word, etc.) combine into one integral whole. (OE fem personal pronoun hēo developement to fem personal pronoun she which is used in NE. reason to avoid a homonymy clash as some of the forms coincided with the masculine personal pronoun forms)

2) Principle of Analogy – is a linguistic process in which a language user reduces word forms perceived as irregular by remaking them in the shape of more common forms that are governed by rules. Example is the Amerian English past tense form of dive. Dove was formed on analogy with words such as drive-drove.

3) Proto-Germanic – After the separation of the ancient Germanic tribes from other Indo-European tries, the Germanic group developed their specific distinctive feature that can be treated as common features of Proto-Germanic. has been reconstructed using the comparative method. It is the common ancestor for all the Germanic languages. Proto- Germanic descended from Proto-Info-European. Examples: (mōna-moon; dēor-deer; bāt-boat)

4) Split – or splitting, is a linguistic change when a language element develops into more than one element of the type. Example: (developement of the sound [y] which split into [i]; [e] and [u] in the 10th century [e]/ [e:] [i]/ [i:] [u]/ [u:] developed in different dialects depending on what sounds they merged with or were affected by. For a few hundread years, the forms with the given sounds were used in free variation until eventually one of the co-existing variants entered the Literary Standard (16th century) and made the basis of the literary language.

5) Strong verbs – made a well-marked restricted group of verbs descending from Proto-Germanic in OE. They built their principle forms by means of vowel gradation. Strong verbs were charakterized by 4 forms: Infinitive, Past Sg, Past Pl and Participle II. Example: (helpan; healp; hulpon; holpen; help)

6) First consonant shift –also called Grimm’s Law distinguishes Germanic languages from other Indo-European languages. A consonant shift is a set of changes that take place in the articulation of one or more consonant phonemes between earlier or later stage of a language. In the transition from Proto-Indo- European to Proto-Germanic these series of consonants underwent an organized set of changes. Voiced aspirated stops b(h); d(h); g(h) changed into voiced stops b d g; voiced stops b d g changed into voiceless stops p t k and voiceless stops p t k changed into voiceless fricatives ƒ Ɵ h. Examples: (pedis (Latin) to fōt (Eng. foot) or cordis(Latin) to heort (Eng. heart)

7) Historical period - are particular blocks of time having some distinctive features (the Old English period, the Middle English period, the Modern English period). OE wæs [wæs] ME was [was] NE was [wᴐz]

8) Mutation - is the sound change of one vowel to another through the influence of a vowel in the succeeding syllable. Palatal /I/ Front mutation is the fronting and raising of vowels through the influence of [i] or [j] in the immediately following syllable. Example: ( the irregular plural in the ME like mouse-mice, foot-feet or root-vowel interchanges in the semantically related words like blood-bleed are the result of the OE Palatal Mutation.)

9) Language contact - occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact. Examples: (Pidgin, Creole, Lingua Franca) Ancient Greek around the Mediterranean basin, or later Latin throughout the Roman Empire, were both contact languages. They tend to vary in use in different local contexts, and there is often a great deal of local language interference. Latin, for example, later developed many local forms which eventually became French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and so on

10) Literary Standard - is a language accepted as a national norm.

11) Suppletivity – is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate. Suppletivity- thegrammatical forms of an irregular verb derived from semantically related words i.e. from different roots. Example: (the verb bēon was derived from these roots wes-; es-; be- the meaning of which were more concrete than the abstract meaning of be. Bēon (NE be); dōn (NE do); willan (NE will).

12) Synchronic variation – is a variation of language use at a particular time point. Is a linguistic change in progress. Example: (OE word frumsceaft illustrates the mechanism of linguistic change at the lexical level. It was first recorded in the meaning of “creation”. It was widely used when with the flood of French words in the 14th c. the word creation was borrowed and used alongside with frumsceaft. The words were used in free variation or rather competed for a place in the language till creation won. And frumsceaft went out of use

13) Variety – is a specific form of a language or language cluster. This may include languages, dialects, accents, registers, styles or other sociolinguistic variation, as well as the standard variety itself. Examples: (New Zeeland, Indian, Australian etc.)

14) Vowel gradation – is any root vowel difference between two or more related cognate words. Examples: (Present tense and Past tense jump-jumped; sing-sang; Singular and Plural book-books; goose-geese)

15) Weak verbs – were a group of OE verbs derived from noun and adjective stems and from stems of strong verbs. The principle forms of weak verbs – Infinitive, Past and Participle II – were built by adding a dental suffic –d or –t. Weak verbs were continuously growing in number. Examples: (cēpan-cepte-cēped-keep; libban-lifde-lifd-live)

16) The Great Vowel Shift is major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in the 15th-17th c. The change affected only long vowels. Long vowels became closer and orginally close vowels were diphtongized. Examples: (æ:>e:>i: beat; o:>u: tool; u:>au fowl; o:>ou boat; a:>ei name; i:>ai time)

1. Theoretical aspects of a Linguistic Change: causes, mechanisms, types.

There can be distinguished three main TYPES of difference in language: 1) geographical, 2) social; 3) temporal. Linguistic changes imply temporal differences, which become apparent if the same elements or parts of the lang are compared to successive historical stages; they are transformations of the same units in time which can be registered as distinct steps in their evolution.

All the changes can be defined as structural or intralinguistic as they belong to the language system.

The concept of linguistic change is not limited to internal, structural changes. It also includes temporal differences in the position of the given unit in language space, that is the extent of its spread in the functional varieties of the language. A new feature – a word, a form, a sound – can be recognized as a linguistic change only after it has been accepted for general use in most varieties of the language or in its main variety – the literary standard.

MECHANISMS. Most linguistic changes involve some kind of substitution and can therefore be called replacements. Replacements are subdivided into different types or patterns. A simple one-to-one replacement occurs when a new unit merely takes the place of the old one.

Replacements can also be found in the plane of content; they are shifts of meaning in words which have survived from the early periods of history.

More difficult changes: two or more units may fall together and thus may be replaced by one unit (merging or merger), or, vice versa, two distinct units may take the place of one (splitting or split).

Linguistic changes classified into different types of replacement can also be described in terms of oppositions. A merger is actually an instance of neutralization or loss of oppositions between formerly contrasted linguistic units, while the essence of spitting is the growth of new oppositions between identical or nondistinctive forms.

Although many linguistic changes can be described in terms of replacements and explained as loss and rise of oppositions, the concept of replacement is narrower than that of linguistic change. Some changes are pure innovations, which do not replace anything, or pure losses. Thus we should regard as innovations numerous new words which were borrowed or coined to denote entirely new objects or ideas, such as sputnik, Soviet. On the other hand, many words have been lost with the objects or ideas which have become obsolete.

Various classifications of linguistic changes are used to achieve an orderly analysis and presentation. Linguistic changes are conveniently classified and described in accordance with linguistic levels: phonetic and phonological changes (also sound changes), spelling changes, grammatical changes, including morphology and syntax, lexical and stylistic changes. At these levels further subdivisions are made: phonetic changes include vowel and consonant changes, qualitative and quantitative changes, positional and independent changes, and so on. Changes at the higher levels fall into formal and semantic, since they can affect the plane of expression and the plane of content; semantic changes, in their turn, may take various forms: narrowing or widening of meaning, metaphoric and metonymic changes, ect.

Language is a system of interrelated elements subsystems and linguistic levels. Every linguistic unit is a component part of some system or subsystem correlated to other units through formal or semantic affinities and oppositions. The alteration of one element is part of the alteration of the entire system as it reveals a re-arrangement of its structure, a change in the relationships of its components.

Rate of Linguistic Changes.

Linguistic changes usually are slow and gradual. It is restricted by the communicative function of language for a rapid change would have disturbed communication between speakers of different generations. At some historical periods it is more intensive and rapid, in some slow.

Different parts or levels of lng. develop at different rates. lexical changes are easy to observe. Grammatical system is very slow to change.

Mechanism of change. Role of Synchronic Variation.

A linguistic change begins with synchronic variation. Alongside the existing language units – words, forms, affixes…- there spring up new units. Synchronic variation is to be found in every language at every stage of its history. It is caused by two main factors: functional differentiation of language and tendencies of historical development.

Causes of Language Evolution:

It is caused by the struggle of opposites. The moving power underlying the development of language is made up of two main forces: one force is the growing and changing needs of man in the speech community; the other is the resisting force that curbs the changes and preserves the language in a state fit for communication. The two forces are manifestation of the two principal functions of language: its expressive and communicative

Answer the given questions:

1) What is a linguistic change? Explain its mechanism. What are the external causes of linguistic changes? (Examples)

Linguistic change. A change in the language is called a linguistic change. It can be iden­tified when the same element or forms of the element are compared at successive historical stages. For example,

10th century wœs [wœs]

14th century was [was]

20″ccntury was [wƒz]

In other words, a new feature – a word, a form, a sound, etc. – is rec­ognized as a linguistic change after it has been accepted for general use in most or all the varieties of the language or in the Literary Standard.

A linguistic change is very slow. It is also gradual but not necessarily consistent –linguistic changes can be very intensive at a particular time, later slow down, and in the course of time become more intensive again.

Linguistic changes are observed at different levels of language: spell­ing changes, phonetic or phonemic changes, morphological changes, syntactical changes, semantic changes, etc. Phonetic changes, for in­stance, can be divided into vowel and consonant changes, quantita­tive and qualitative. Changes can also be described as formal or se­mantic, as historical or analogical. What level or aspect of change is taken for study depends on the investigator’s goals and the objectives of the investigation.

Mechanism. Any change in a language starts with synchronic variation. Along with existing language elements (sound, form, meaning), there ap­pear new elements. New elements arise in conformity with produc­tive historical trends and patterns. For an extended period of time, old and new elements are used in free variation. A change is gradual­ly spreading through a language as long as one element becomes more favoured by language users than another. In the case of a phonetic change, for example, just a few people use the change sporadically in a few words; then, a large number of words are affected with a new sound little by little used more consistently and then the majority of words take the change. Very rarely do more than one variant survive. Usually only one is preserved while others die out.

There is no single reason for language change. In very general terms, language change is caused by the struggle of opposites: (1) the grow ing and changing needs of the speech community against (2) the re­sisting force of a language as a system and vehicle fit for communi­cation. This cause is rather explanatory yet too universal to account for concrete changes in particular languages. Historical linguists take into consideration a number of factors classifying them into extralin­guistic and internal/linguistic.

Extralinguistic factors:

1) geographical division and language contact;

When people move away from each other, they have different experiences and their languages diverge. Similarly, when people come into contact with each other, their languages converge as they exercise more or less influence on each other. The increasing mobility of people only expedites such processes.

One more important fact is that speech is the product of certain muscular movements. Any voluntary muscular movement when constantly repeated is subject to gradual alteration. Alteration in the position of the organs of speech results in a different quality of the produced sound. So, each language user can be said to be introducing slight changes in his/her speech. The language of a group, or district, or country, is the sum total of individual speech habits, and it changes as the speech of its members changes.

2) imperfect learning/use of language;

This has become a common occurrence as observed in immigrant groups and bilingual/multilingual communities in contact areas. Looking back in history, the imperfect use of the English lan­guage by lower classes in 11th-14th c. had a substantial influence on the use of English strong verbs: as the result of wrongly applied patterns, the group of strong verbs considerably decreased.

3) cultural development /progress;

As new entities and ideas are created, a language changes to name or explain them. Similarly, old entities fall out of daily use and the words become obsolete.

4) social prestige;

The relation of linguistic change and social prestige has been shown by sociolinguistic research. People come to talk like those they identify with or admire. They may consciously try to avoid particular features in their spoken or written language, or they may subconsciously change, for example, towards a favoured ac­cent which has positive prestige.

2) What is a linguistic change? Explain its mechanism. What are the internal causes of linguistic changes? (Examples)


1) ease of articulation /tendency to improve and preserve; People want to speak using as little effort as possible. Such be­ing the case, sounds become simpler over long periods of time. However, the principle of least articulatory effort explains only a small part of language change. Language resistance to change preserves its articulatory complexity and maintains it as a vehicle fit for communication.

2) analogy; Analogy is a linguistic process in which a language user reduces word forms perceived as irregular by remaking them in the shape of more common forms that are governed by rules. For example, the English verb help once had the preterite holp and the past par­ticiple holpen. These obsolete forms have been replaced by helped by the power of analogy or by widened application of the pro­ductive verb-ed rule. Irregular forms can as well be created by the principle of analogy. One such example is the American English past tense form of dive. Dove was formed on analogy with words such as drive-drove.

3) interaction of changes at different language levels; A good example to illustrate the interrelationship of the language levels is the simplification of noun morphology that involves pho­netic weakening of final syllables, analogical leveling of forms and stabilization of word order at the syntactic level.

4) randomness; Sometimes language change is essentially unpredictable. Many changes in vocabulary are isolated and arbitrary. In phonology or grammar, randomness is a fairly rare case though.

Although the given internal factors seem to deal with language itself, they inevitably involve speech community, speech habits of its mem­bers and their knowledge about their language which allows them to produce utterances in different contexts. It is true that a language, as an abstract system, changes over time but what we can refer to in ana­lyzing the process of language change is real, existing utterances and language users’ grammars, as language exists only in mouths, ears, hands, eyes and brains of the people.

3) What is a linguistic change? Explain its mechanism. What are the results of linguistic changes? (Examples)

Results of linguistic canges.

Linguistic changes can be viewed as replacements or innovations. Replacements are subdivided into simple replacements and more complicated ones: mergers and splits. Innovations neither replace nor delete anything. They are, for example, borrowed or coined words, newly built forms, or new sounds that might be created for stylistic purposes.

The story of the OE ftumsceaft and the French word creation illus­trates a simple one-to-one replacement. It also serves as a good exam­ple illustrating the mechanism of linguistic change and the interac­tion of extralinguistic and linguistic factors at the lexical level of language.

The development of the personal pronoun she is an example of a merger. OE had the Fem. personal pronoun heo. Increased dialectal divergence in early Middle English (ME) (an external factor) supplied the raw material for synchronic variation in the shape of co-existing variants heo, he, ho, sce, sho, she. The variation resulted from the merg­ing of the Fem. personal pronoun heo and the Fem. demonstrative pronoun seo. She was first recorded in the North Eastern regions and finally prevailed over other variants by gradually extending to other areas. In Late ME the form was incorporated in the London dialect which became the basis of the Literary English. It is also highly prob­able that the language preserved she to avoid a homonymy clash as some of the forms coincided with the Masc. personal pronoun forms. That is to say, the need to distinguish between the two forms was an internal factor of the language which determined the selection.

Splitting can be illustrated by the development of the sound [y] which split into [i], [e] and [u] in the 10 th c. [c]/[e:], [i]/[i:], [u]/[u:] de­veloped in different dialects depending on what sounds they merged with or were affected by. For a few hundred years, the forms with the given sounds were used in free variation until eventually one of the co-existing variants entered the Literary Standard (16th c.) and made the basis of the literary language.

It is important to note that the reduction or loss is always compensated in the language while innovations do not overload but gradually fit in the system of language.

4. Historical background of OE

The history of the Eng.lng. begins with the invasion of the British Isles by Germanic tribes in the 5th c. Before that Br.Isles must have been inhabited for at least 50thousand years. The earliest inhabitants whose linguistic affiliation has been established- Celts. They were tribal society which practiced a primitive agriculture and carried on trades. Celtic lng. were spoken over extensive parts of Europe B.C after they were absorbed by other IE lang. The Gaelic branch has survived as Irish in Ireland has expanded to Scotland as Scotch-Gaelic of the Highlands and is still spoken by a few hundred people on the Isle of Man. The Britonnic branch is represented by Kymric or Welsh in modern Wales and by Breton or Armorican spoken in France. Another Britonic dialect in Gr.Brit., Cornish was spoken in Cronwall until the end of 18th c.

In the middle of the 1st c. the Roman invasions started lead by Caesar and afterwards Claudius and towards the end of the c. Britain has become a province of the Roman Empire. The Roman occupation lasted nearly 400 years; it came to an end in the early 5th c. the upper classes and the townspeople in the southern districts were to a considerable extent Romanised, while rural districts remained little affected by the process.

Since the Romans had left the British Isles some time before Germanic invasion there could never be any direct contacts between the new arrivals and the Romans on British soil. So the Roman culture and language were mainly passed on to them at a secondhand by the Romanised Celts. Thus, they had encountered Romans even before in warfare and trade ect.

The 5th c. was the age of increased Germanic expansion and by the end of this c. they had colonized the island. They came from the western subdivision of Germanic tribes: the Saxons(2nd wave), the Angles (last wave) and the Jutes ( some historians define them Frankish). They were called Saxons and Angles by the Celts and Romans but preferred to call themselves “Angelcyn” and applied this name to conquered territories: Angelcynnes land ( land of the English – England).The invaders pulled down British villages and ruined the Roman British towns. They killed and enslaved the Britons or drove them to the distant parts of the country. Gradually the Germanic conquerors and the surviving Celts blended into a single people.

The invaders certainly prevailed over the natives so far as language was concerned; the linguistic conquest was complete. After settlement West Germanic tongues came to be spoken all over Britain with the exception of a few distant regions where Celts were in the majority: Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.

The migration of the Germanic tribes to the British Isles and resulting separation from the Germanic tribes on the mainland was a decisive event in their linguistic history. Geographical separation as well as mixture and unification of people, are major factors in linguistic differentiation and in the formation of language. Being cut off from related OG tongues the closely related group West Germanic dialects developed into a separate Germanic language, English.

In OE some events of external history have direct bearing on the development of the language. They are: the economic and social structure of society, the introduction of Christianity and the relations between the kingdoms. The period from 5th till 11th c. was a transitional period from the tribal and slave-owning system to feudalism. The economic isolation of the regions as well as the political disunity of the country led to the formation of new geographical boundaries between the speech of different localities. The growth of feudalism was accompanied by the rise of regional dialectical division replacing of the Germanic settlers. Those forces, however, on one hand the OE dialects acquired certain common features which distinguished them from continental Germanic tongues; on the other hand, they displayed growing regional divergence. Because of feudal system tribal dialectic division was superseded by geographical division, in other words, tribal dialects were transformed into local or regional dialects.

In the 8th c. Scandinavian attacks began. The struggle of the English against the Scandinavians lasted over 300 years in the course of which period more than half of England was occupied by the invaders and re-conquered again. Scandinavians came in large numbers to settle in the new areas. They founded many towns and villages in northern England; in many regions there sprang up a mixed population made up from English and Danes. Their linguistic assimilation was easy since their tongues belonged to the same linguistic group.

A most important role in the history of the English language was played by the introduction of Christianity which gave a strong impetus to the growth of culture and learning. Religious teachings and services were conducted in Latin.

5. Historical background to the ME period.

EARLY ME. Due to feudalism in early ME differences between regional dialects grew. In the age of poor communication dialect boundaries often coincided with geographical barriers such as rivers, mountains and ect. and these boundaries would hinder the diffusion of linguistic features. In addition to economic, geographic and social conditions, dialectal differences in early ME were accentuated by some historical events namely: Scandinavian invasions and the Norman Conquest.

Though Scandinavian invasions are dated to the OE period, their effect on the language is apparent in ME. More than half of England was recognized as Danish territory. The new settlers and the English intermarried, mixed, because there was no linguistic barrier. (~ 75% of place-names are Danish or Norwegian). Probably in many districts people became bilingual either with Old Norse or English. We find many Scandinavian words in early ME records. In 11th c Norman Conquest took place. People who came to Britain were asimilated by the French and were french speakers and bearers of french culture. Their tongue in Br. is often called Anglo-French or Anglo-Norman but also could be called just French. French lang started to be used in many spheres of life. For almost 300 years French was the official language of administration. It was also used in king’s court, church and castle, also the everyday language of many nobles, clergy and townspeople in the South. French, alongside Latin, was the language of writing. At first the two languages existed side by side without mingling. Then slowly they began to do it. The English won, because it was the living language of entire people, while French was restricted to certain social layers and spheres and writing. The French influence added new features to the regional and social differentiation of the lang. In the course of Eearly ME the area of Eng lang in the British Isles grew. In 13th c eastern half of Wales became part of England . In late 12th England made their first attempts to conquer Ireland. Though part of Ireland was ruled by England the country remained divided and had little contact with England.

LATE ME. The domination of French language came to an end in the course of 14th c. English became the language of literature and administration and took place of French. Little by little Normans and the English drew together and intermingled. In the 14th Anglo-Norman was as dead lang. By the 15th French and Latin was learnt as a foreign language.

6. Historical background to the NE period.

Early NE. The formation of the national literary Eng lang covers this period. There were at least two major external factors: the unification of the country and the progress of culture. Other historical events such as increased foreign contacts affected the language in a less general way: they influenced the growth of the vocabulary.

The interest in commercial profits caused feudal oppression and the conditions of peasantry was bad which resulted in rebellions. The crafts became separated from agriculture. In 15th -16th c the feudal relations were decaying bourgeois relations and capitalistic mode of production were developing rapidly. Trade expanded beyond the local boundaries (wool). Continued anarchy and violence broke out into a civil war (Wars of the Roses). Afterwards absolute monarchy was established. Economic and social changes were accompanied by political unification. In the last quarter of 15th c England became a centralized country. It played a decisive role in the development of the Eng lang. All over the world the victory of capitalism over feudalism was linked up with the consolidation of people into nations the formation of national lang and the growth of superdialect forms of lang. into national standard. Culture. The 15th 16th c in Western Europe are marked by renewed interest in classical art and literature. In 1438 in Germany (johann Gutenberg) introduced printing. The first eng book printed was Caxton’s translation of troy RECUYELL OF THE HISTORYES OF TROYE. The lang used was the London literary eng. With cheap printed books becoming available to a greater number of readers the London form of speech was carried to other regions. 1475 the date of the publication of first eng book is regarded as turning point in eng linguistic history and the start of new period.

NE. the great

early Modern English (1500-1800). The next wave of innovation in English came with Renaissance. The revival of classical brought many classical Latin and Greek words into the language. Many borrowings survived to this day. Many familiar words and phrases were coined or first recorded by Shakespeare.

Two other major factors influenced the language and ser4ved to separate Middle and Modern English. The first was the GVS (Great Vowel Shift). This was a change in pronunciation that began around 1400. Vowel sounds began to be made further to the front of the mouth and the letter “e” at the end of words became silent. In linguistic terms, the shift was rather sudden, the major changes occurring within a century. The shift is still not over; however, vowel sounds are still shortening although the change has become considerably more gradual.

The last major factor in the development of Modern English was the advent of the printing press. William Caxton brought the printing press to England in 1476. Books became cheaper and as a result, literacy became more common. Publishing for the masses became a profitable enterprise, and works in English, as opposed to Latin, became more common. Finally, the printing press brought standardization to English. The dialect of London, where most publishing houses were located, became the standard. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the first English dictionary was published in 1604.

c)1 Late Modern English (1800- Present). The principal distinction between early and late-modern English is vocabulary. Pronunciation, grammar, and spelling are largely the same, but Late-Modern English has many more words. These words are the result of two historical factors. The first is the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society. This necessitated new words for things and ideas that had not previously existed. The second was the British Empire. At its height, Britain ruled one quarter of the earth’s surface and English adopted many foreign words and made them its own.

The industrial and scientific revolution created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. For this, English relied heavily on Latin and Greek. English roots were used for such terms as horsepower, airplane, and typewriter.

This burst of neologisms continues today, perhaps most visible in the field of electronics and computers.

Also, the rise of the British Empire and the growth of global trade served not only to introduce English to the world, but to introduce words into English. Hindi and the other languages of the Indian subcontinent provided many words. Virtually every language on Earth has contributed to the development of English, from Finnish (sauna) and Japanese (tycoon) to the vast contribution of French and Latin.

The British Empire was a maritime empire, and the influence of nautical terms on the English language has been great.

Finally, the 20th c. saw two world wars, and the military influence on the language during the latter half of this century has been great. Before the Great War, military service for English-speaking persons was rare: both Britain and the US maintained militaries. Military slang existed, but with the exception of nautical terms, rarely influenced Standard English. During the mid-20th c., however, virtually all British and American men served in the military. Military slang entered the language like never before. Blockbuster, nose dive, radar, roadblock, spearhead, and landing strip are all military terms that made their way into Standard English.

7. Phonetic Germanic features of English - 1. The stress is fixed on the first syllable; 2. the stress cannot move in form-building; 3. stressed and unstressed syllables undergo different changes; 4. in accented syllables, vowels display a strong tendency to change ( which results in the growth of the number of vowels); 5. long and short vowels are strictly differentiated; 6. consonantal system is the result of the First consonant shift.

8. Grammatical Germanic features of English - 1. synthetic grammatical structure: the grammatical forms are built by means of inflections ( the stem suffix merges with the ending; the ending is marker of the grammatical from), by means of sound interchange ( vowel gradation inherited from ancient IE), by mean of suppletion ( restricted use); 2. verbs are divided into two large groups: strong (principal forms are built with the help of root vowel interchange and weak ( principal forms are built with the help of the dental suffix).

9. Linguistic features of Ger­manic languages. Grimm’s & Verner’s laws.

Germanic group acquired their spec distinctive features during the period of proto-Germanic pa­rent lang. (15-20c BC), be­fo­re the further expansion & disintegration of tribes. Pho­ne­­tics: 1. force or expiratory stress became the only type of stress used. 2) Position of stress was stabilized. It was fixed on the 1st syllable usu. the root. 3) the stress could no longer move either in form or word building. Vowels: 1) qua­litative changes affect the quality of the sound [o-a] 2) dependent ch. Are re­stric­ted to certain positions or pho­ne­­tic conditions, a sound may change under the influence of the neighbouring sounds in a cer­tain type syllable. 3) inde­pen­dent ch.- affect a certain sound in all positions. 4) posi­tio­nal assimilation ( the pro­nun­ciation of a vowel was mo­di­fied under the following or pre­­ce­ding consonant, some­ti­m­es a vowel was approximated more closely to the following vowel; result – allophones) 5) mutations – before n, l, j in the next syllable the short e, I, & u became close. In other en­vi­ronment more open allo­mor­phs were used. Consonants: Grimm’s law / the 1st or proto-Germanic consonant shift. Voiceless plosives developed in PG into voiceless fricatives (p-f, k-x); IE voiced plosives were shifted to voiceless plosives (b-p, d-t, g-k); IE voiced as­pi­ra­t­ed plosives were reflected ei­ther as voiced fricatives or as pu­re voiced plosives. Verner’s Law. It explains some corres­po­n­dences of consonants whi­ch seemed to contradict Grim­m’s & were regarded as excep­tions. All the early voiceless fri­­ca­tives became voiced btw vo­wels if the preceding vowel was unstressed. In the absen­ce of these conditions they re­mained voiceless. As a result of voicing by V’s law there aro­se as interchange of con­so­na­n­ts in the gram forms of the wo­r­ds, termed gram interchange. Gra­m­mar. They had a synthe­ti­cal gram str. Gram forms we­re built in the synthetic way; by means of inflection, sound in­ter­change & simpleton. Stro­ng & weak verbs: the strong V built their principle forms with the help of root vowel inter­ch­an­ges + certain gram endings. The weak V built their principle te­nse & participle II by inser­t­ing a special suffix btw the root & the ending.

10. ————————–

11. ————————–

. 12. Account for the name of King Alfred the Great.

Anglo-Saxon king 871–899 who defended England against Danish invasion and founded the first English navy. He succeeded his brother Aethelred to the throne of Wessex in 871, and a new legal code came into force during his reign. He encouraged the translation of scholarly works from Latin (some he translated himself), and promoted the development of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. This ensured that his deeds were recorded in history as legends and we know more about him than any other Anglo Saxon King.

13. Development of articles.

The direction of the develop­m­e­nt of the demonstrative pro­no­uns, sē, sēo þæt led to the for­mation of the definite ar­ti­c­le. This development is asso­ci­a­­ted with a change in form and me­aning. In OE the pronouns sē, sēo þæt were used as no­un determiners only with a we­a­kened meaning, approa­ch­ing that of a modern definite artic­le. In the course of ME there arose important formal diff between the demonstrative p and the definite article: as demonstrative p that preserved number distinctions whereas as a definite article- usually in the weakened form the – it was uninflected. In the 14th c the article has lost all the traces of inflection and become a short unaccented form-word. The meaning and funct of the definite art become more specific when it come to be opposed to the indefinite art which had developed from the OE numeral and indefinite p ān.

In OE there existed 2 words: nu­m­e­ral “ān” and indefinite pro­no­un ‘sum’, which functions ap­p­roached those of modern in­d­efinite article. “An” – have been more collo­qu­ial word, “sum” – tended to assume li­terary character, the end of the period and soon fell in­to disuse in this function. In e­a­rly ME the indefinite pronoun “an” lost its inflection. Later the uninflected oon/one and their reduced forms an/a were fir­mly established in all re­gi­o­n­s­. However, in ME there were ca­ses where the use of articles and noun determiners did not cor­respond to modern articles. It is believed that the growth of articles in early ME was cau­s­ed by several internal lin­guis­t­ic factors:-development of de­finite article is connected with the changes in the declension of adj, namely with the loss of dis­tinctions between strong and weak forms. The weak adj for­ms had certain dem­on­s­tr­a­ti­v­e meaning resembling that of the modern definite article. These forms were commonly used together with the demonstrative p sē, sēo þæt. –the strong form of adj con­ve­y­e­d the meaning of in­deter­mi­n­a­­­teness, which was later tran­s­fe­r­red to “an”, a numeral and in­­definite pronoun. –if n ouns we­­­­re used without adj, or we­ak or strong forms coincided, “an” and “ðaet” were the only me­ans of expressing these me­a­n­ing. –the function of the wo­rd order changed. After the lo­­ss of inflections, the word or­d­e­r assumed a gram function – it showed the gram relation be­t­ween words in the sen-ce. No­­­w the parts of the sentences had fixed places. Accordingly, the communicative func pas­s­e­d­ to the articles and their use be­came more regular. The gr­o­w­th of the articles is connected bo­th with the changes in syn­tax and in morphology.

14. Development of Analytical Verb forms: future tense, subjunctive mood.

OE finite verbs had 2 verbal grammatical categories proper: Mood and Tense. Now it has 5 (mood tense aspect time-correlation voice). All the new forms which have been included in the verb paradigm are analytical forms; all the synthetic ones are direct descendents of OE forms.

FUTURE TENSE. In OE there was no form of the Future t. there was only Past and Present tenses. To indicate future actions present tense was used; modal phrases, consisting of verbs sculan willan maZan cunnan (NE shall will may can) and others; and Infinitive of the notional verb. In ME the use of modal phrases, esp with shall, became increasingly common. Shall + infinitive was the principal means indicating future actions. Shall could retain its modal meaning of necessity but often weakened it to such an extent that the phrase denoted ‘pure’ futurity. In late ME texts it was used both as a modal v and as future t auxiliary. To express future actions in ME willen with an Ind was commonly used but the modal meaning (of volition) must have been more obvious than shall. In the age of Shakespeare the phrases with will and shall as well as present t of notional verbs, occurred in free variation; they can express ‘pure’ futurity and add diff shades of modal meanings. In 1653 John Wallis for the first time formulated the rule about the regular interchange of shall and will depending on person. Those rules were repeated in many grammar books in the 19th c. and it has become a mark of the British Standard.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. In OE the forms of the Subj. Mood were synthetic. In the course of ME and Early NE there sprang up several new analytical forms of the Subj. Mood. In ME the formal distinction btw the Subj. and Ind. Were to a large extent neutralized. In OE modal phrases consisting of sculan willan maZan cunnan and Inf. Were commonly used to indicate fut actions. In ME more modal phrases were introduced but sholde and wolde outnumbered the other verbs. They could weaken or even lose their lexical meanings and turn into auxiliaries. By the age of Shakespeare the change was complete and these forms became formal markers of the new analytical forms of the Subj. Mood. The same rules as for will shall were introduced and also became standard.

Development of Analytical Verb forms: perfective aspect, diff btw prior and non-prior actions.

Like other analytical forms of the verb the Perf form have developed from OE verb phrases. The main source was OE ‘possessive’ construction of the verb habban (have)a direct O and Part II of a transitive verb which served as an attribute to the O. the meaning was a person(S) possessed a thing(O). the participle agreed with the noun-O in Nr Gender case. Originally habban was used only with part of transitive verbs then it came to be used with V taking genitival datival and prepositional Os and even with intransitive V. the other source of Perf forms was the OE phrase consisting of the ling-V bēon and Part II of the intransitive V. towards ME the two verb phrases turned into analytical forms and made up a single set of forms termed ‘perfect’. The participles had lost their forms of agreement with the noun the place of the O and the participle construction with haven changed: the part usually stood close to the V have and was followed by the O with referred now to the analytical form as a whole. In perf form the auxiliary have lost the meaning of possession. By the literary age of renaissance the perf forms have spread to all parts of the V system.

In the beginning the main function of perf forms was to indicate completed action, rather than priority of one action to another and relevance to the subsequent situation. For long time these forms were used as synonymous to simple past. Towards the age of Shakespeare the contrast btw pef and non-perf forms became more obvious. The category of Time correlation was established in the 17th c.

development of analytical verb forms: continuous aspect, passive voice.

The development of Aspect is linked up with the growth of the Continuous forms. This growth was slow and uneven. Verb phrases consisting of bēon (be)+ Pasrt I are not infrequently found in OE prose. They denoted a quality or a lasting state characterizing the person or thing indicated by the S of the sentence. In early ME ben + Part I fell into disuse; it occurs occasionally in some dialectal areas. In late ME it extended to other dialects and again became frequent. At that stage the construction did not differ from the simple V from in meaning and was used as its synonym mainly for emphasis and vividness of description. In the 15th and 16th c be+ part I was often confused with a synonymous phrase – be+preposition on+ verbal noun. By that time the Pres Part and the verbal noun had lost their formal diff: part I was built with the help of –ing ad the verbal N had the word building suffix –ing. The prepositional phrase indicated a process taking place at a certain period of time. It is believed that meaning of process or action of limited duration may have come from the prepositional phrase. The non-cont simple form can indicate an action in progress which takes place before the eyes of the speaker (now-cont form). In the 18th c cont forms acquired a specific meaning of their own. And then cont and non-cont made up a new grammatical category – aspect. The meaning of non-cont –indef- forms became more restricted.

For many hundred years the cont forms were not used in the pass voice. In late ME the act voice of the cont form was sometimes used with a passive meaning. The active form of the cont aspect was employed in the passive meaning until 19th c. the earliest written evidence of the pass cnt is found in a private letter of 18th c. this new form aroused protests of many scholars but in spite of all these protests the pass voice of the cont aspect continued to be used and eventually was recognized as correct.

15.Explain the development of OE as a synthetic lang into ME as an analytic lang.

Inflectional languages fall into two classes: synthetic an analytic. A synthetic language is one which indicates the relations of words in a sentence by means of inflections. In the case of Indo-European languages these most commonly take the form of endings on the noun and pronoun, adjective and the verb. So, Old English is frequently presented as a synthetic language, a language in which grammatical function of clause elements is primarily derived from inflections rather than from word order and prepositions,(Old English has an extensive system of inflections concerning most word classes, and often it is perfectly possible to rely on these, rather than word order and prepositions, to denote grammatical function),

For example, the Latin sentence Nero interfecit Agaphinam (Neri killed Agaphin) would mean the same thing if the words would be arranged in other order, such as Agaphinam interfecit Nero because Nero is the form of nominative case and the ending –am of Agaphinam marks the noun as accusative no matter where it stands. In modern English, the subject and the object do not have distinctive forms (except in the possessive case), inflectional endings to indicate the other relations marked by case endings in Latin. Instead we use a fixed word order. Then it makes sense whether we say Nero killed Agaphin or Agaphin killed Nero.

While Present Day English is said to be the opposite and analytic language: uses function words (prepositions, articles, auxiliaries, conjunctions) and depends on word order to signify grammatical relationships. Thus, Present Day English is an analytic language, a language in which grammatical function is derived from word order and prepositions. Taking this statement at face value would mean that word order would have to be fixed. So, language which make an extensive use of prepositions and auxiliary verbs and depend on word order are called analytic languages.

In short: Inflections which were typical for OE and expressed grammatical functions were lost and had to be compensated by the verbs of general meaning, modal meaning, prepositions, articles, conjunctions. In ME the position in the sentence is strictly fixed.

16. What is the role of early literature/fiction in the development of Eng? Refer to “Beowulf” and G. Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales”.

“Beowulf” is the most important epic poem in Anglo-Saxon literature. More importantly, it is one of the “earliest European epics” written in English instead of Latin. It is possible that ‘Beowulf’ may be the lone survivor of a genre of Old English long epics. A further unique aspect of this poem is that there is a large number of words recorded only once in a language.

“Beowulf” was written in the Old English period. Germanic tribes spoke Kentish, West, Saxon, and Northumbrian. Northumbrian was the first OE dialect to rise to literary prominence. The greatest poem Beowulf was originally written in Northumbrian. With the advancement of the West Saxon kingdom, the west Saxon dialect attained a literary standard of OE. “Beowulf” originally written in Northumbrian was rewritten by the West-Saxon scribes ( perrašinėtojų) and is the result of the mixture of the two styles.

After a Norman conquest the English language was forbidden. However, due to some circumstances( such as plague, assimilation of french and eglish words) eventually it was becoming stronger in church and universities. After the Parliament was opened in English, the last step was to meet the competition of Latin and French writing. Geoffrey Chaucer was a greatest poet who wrote in English. Chaucer wrote in a dialect which in the main coincided with that used in documents produced in London shortly before his time and a long time after. Altough he did not really create the literary language, as a poet of outstading talent he made better use of it that his contemporaries and set up a pattern to be followed in the 15th ct. Chaucer’s literary language based on the mixed London dialect is known as classical ME; in the 15thc and 16th c. it became the basis of the national literary English language.


1. Etymological survey of the OE vocabulary.

The OE voc was almost purely Germa­nic; except for a small number of borrovings it consisted of native words inherited from PG or formed from native roots and affixes. The 3 main etymological layers in the na­­tive OE words are distin­gui­s­h­ed coming from diff historical periods: 1) co­m­mon IE words: they con­s­ti­tu­te the oldest part of OE voc, were inherited by PG and pased into the Germanic lang of various subgroups. Among them: *names of natural phenomena; *pla­nts; animals, *agricultural terms *names of par­ts of human body *terms of kindship. **verbs denoting basic activities; **adjectives- most essential qualities **personal and demonstrative P most numerals **in addition to roots includes word-building and form-building elements 2) com­mon Germanic voc – includes words that are shared by most Ger­manic lang but not found outside the gorup. Words semantically are connec­t­ed to nature, sea & every­d­ay life.The words originated in PG when the Teutonic tribes lived close together. 3) special OE – they do not occur in other lang. These words are few if including only the words whose roots have not been found outside Eng. (OE – brid-bird). More numerous if include OE compounds and derived words from Germanic roots in eng. Foreign elements in the OE voc. All in all about (600w). they came from two sources: Cel­tic & Latin. Celtic borrowings were few cus there was little mixture btw germanic anc celtic people. Only pla­ce-names: Kent, York, Lon­d­on. Rivers: Thames. Outside place names celtic borowings are very few. In later ages some of the Celtic borrowings died out & remained only in dialects. The role of Latin lang was de­ter­­mined by such historical e­v­e­n­ts: Roman occupation of Bri­tain, the influence of roman cul­ture, the introduction of Ch­­r­­­i­s­ti­a­nity. Latin had influen­ced OE alphabet, the growth of wr­i­ting & literature. Latin words entered Engl at diff stages of OE history. Early OE borrow­i­n­g­s indicated the new things & concepts that the Teutons had le­arned from Romans (pund-po­und, winum-win, pipor-pep­per). Words related with war, a­g­ri­culture trade, building, ho­me life. Place-names: Chester, Nor­wich, Greenport. Another La­­tin influence period began with the introduction of Chri­s­ti­a­nity (late 6th) & lasted until the end of Oe. The words fall into 2 groups: 1) pertaining to religion(bishop; candel-candle) 2) connected with learning: OE scol –Ne school. The Latin im­p­act on OE was not only bor­ro­w­­ing of words. The so-called tran­slation – loans appeared (w­o­r­ds or phrases created on the pattern of Latin words as their translations). E.g. the na­mes of the days of the week.

Etymological survey of the ME and NE vocabulary.

ME. Scandinavian influence on the vocabulary*the presence of Scandinavians in the English population is indicated by a large number of place-names in the northern and eastern areas; most frequent are place-names with the Scandinavian components. *in the beginning Scand. loan-words were dialectally restricted; they increased the range of lng. variation; later due to dialect mixture they penetrated into other parts of the lng. space, passed into London Eng and the national lng. Probably in early ME there were more Scandinavian words in current use than have survived today. Some words died out or were retained only in the local dialects. The total number of Scandinavian borrowings in En is estimated at about 900words; about 700 of them belongs to standard eng. *it is difficult to define the semantic spheres of scand borrowings: they mostly pertain to everyday life and do not differ from native words. Only the earliest loan-words deal with military and legal matters. They are late OE. *many scand borrowings replaced native form-words. Ex: they replaced OE hie. *voc changes due to scand influence proceeded in diff ways: 1)a scand word could enter the lang as an innovation, without replacing any other lexical item (low, fellow). 2)The loan-word was a synonym of a native En word and then the loan-word could disappear or could be restricted to dialectal use; it could take the place of the native word; both the borrowed and the native words could survive as synonyms with a slight diff in meaning. *since both lng O Scand and OE were closely related Scand words were very much like native ones. The only criteria that can be applied are some phonetic features of borrowed words: the consonant cluster [sk] is a frequent mark of scand loan-words. Or sounds [k] and [g] before front vowels, which in native words normally become [tS] and [dZ]

French influence in ME*was brought by Normans.*the French borrowings of the ME period are usually described according to semantic spheres. 1) nearly all words relating to government and administration of the country are French by origin (court nation) 2) words pertaining to the feudal system and words indicating titles and ranks of the nobility (baron duke feudal); 3) military terms (aid armour); 4) low and jurisdiction (accuse crime marry); 5) church and religion (abbey altar);5) loan words referring to house furniture agriculture esp for the innovations introduced by Normans; 6) words connected to art; 7) names of garments; 8) domain of entertainment (cards pleasure); 9) relaiting to knighthood (honour romance); 10) diff aspects of life of the upper classes and of the town life: forms of address: madam; meals: dinner. Some words were introduced to name innovations; some appeared simultaneously and could lead to replacement or to remain as synonym with little diff in meaning. Borrowings from Classical lng with special reference to the age of Renaissance one of the reasons for the influx of latic words was that many new ideas encountered I classical works were not susceptible to precise translation therefore scholars often prefared to retain the Latin terms. Some of them belong to scientific terminology (curriculum axis); a distinctive group of Greek loan-words pertains to theatre literature and rhetoric: comedy climax. In add to borrowings classical lang have provided a supply of roots in the creation of the new words as well as profusion of derivational affixes. Borrowings from Contemporary lng. later borrowings from French mainly pertain to diplomatic relations social life art and fashions. Apart from greek latin and French words from Italian(art) Ductch Spanish(concepts encountered in colonies) Germn(mineralogical terms mining industry philosophical terms) Portguese and Russian. A number of words were adopted fro, lang of other countries and continents which came into contact with eng: Persian Chinese Hungarian Turkish Malayan Polynesian native lang of india America.

2. Explain the principle grammatical forms of the verb (RISE, SPEAK, CHOOSE, LIVE, BE)

Strong verbs were characterized by 4 principal forms: Infinitive, Past Sg., Pats Pl. and Participle 2. They built their principal forms by means of vowel gradation. For example, specan à spac à sparon à specen à speak.

In some classes vowel alterations were accompanied by consonant interchange, like ceosan àceas à curon à coren à choose.

Unlike strong verbs, weak verbs were continuously growing in number. They derived from noun and adjective stems and from stems of strong verbs.

The principle forms of weak verbs – Infinitive, Past and Participle 2 – were built by adding a dental suffix –d or –t. For example, libban à lifde à lifd à live.

Preterite present verbs occupied a peculiar place in the system of OE verbs. Being 12 all in all, they formed a separate group of verbs by combining the ways of building verbal forms of strong and weak verbs. Their present tense corresponded to the past of strong verbs while their past was derived according to the past of weak verbs. Principal forms : Infinitive, present, past : risan-ras, rison – risen

There were four irregular verbs in OE. The system of building their principle forms was based on suppletivity: the grammatical forms of an irregular verb were derived from semantically related words, i.e. from different roots. For example, the verb beon was derived from three roots wes-, es- and be- the meaning of which were more concrete than the abstract meaning of be.

3. Account for the characteristics of English modal verbs.

In the Middle English period, preterite-present verb group was re­duced by half and up to the 16th C. only 6 preterite-present verbs had survived: can (could), may (might), must, shall (should), ought, and dare. However, their paradigms were reduced to two or even one member, i.e. only separate forms of the verbs were preserved.

Cunnan originally meant ‘to know’ but later in the Middle English period it developed the meaning of physical and mental ability and replaced the modal verbs moey and mot in these meanings.

As the original meaning of the modal verbs moey passed to the verb cunnan, its meaning was narrowed to ‘possibility’ of ability or of an action in general. In the course of time, it also developed the meaning of ‘permission’.

Mot developed the meaning of obligation and was no longer used in its original meaning of ‘ability’.

Sculan preserved two forms and its original meaning of ‘obligation’. Scal and scolde were the present and past tense forms and only in the 16t’-17,h C. they developed as separate modal verbs.

a3an originally expressed ‘possessivity’. In the Middle English pe­riod the past tense forms a3te and a3ton acquired the meaning of the Present constituting a new modal verb expressing ‘obligation’. Its original meaning of ‘possessivity’ was retained by the Present tense forms. The forms owst, owen developed into owe and own and still by Shakespeare were used interchangeably in the meaning of ‘to pos­sess’. Later the two forms developed into two verbs with their own meaning.

Dearr developed into the verb dare. Unlike other preterite present verbs, it preserved some features of notional verbs, yet peculiarities of modal verbs were also developed.

4. Explain the plural form of the noun (MOUSE, TOOTH, LIFE)

Palatal Mutation – was a much more comprehensive process and affected most OE vowels, bot long and short, diphtongs and monophtongs. It led to the appearance of new vowels and to the instances of merging and splitting of phonemes. Mutation is the sound change of one vowel to another through the influence of a vowel in the succeeding syllable. It led to the growth of new vowel interchanges. For example, the irregular plural in Modern English, like mouse- mice, tooth- teeth or root-vowel interchanges in the semantically related words, like life- live

5. Explain the degree forms of the adjective (GOOD, BAD, OLD, FAR)

Apart from gender, number and case, adjectives distinguished be­tween the degrees of comparison: positive, comparative and superla­tive. The comparative and superlative degrees were formed by means of the suffix ra- and -est/-ost. Some adjectives used the interchange of root-vowels. Just a few adjectives built their degree forms by means of suppletion.

Suffixation plus vowel interchange: eald à ealdra/ieldra à ealdost/ealdest/ieldest

In the Middle English period, the suffixes were weakened to -er and -est. The vowel interchange was preserved only in cases where the difference in meaning developed, like in old older, oldest and old elder, eldest. An important innovation in the adjective system was the growth of the analytical forms. The ground for it was prepared by the use of the OE adverbs ma, best, betst, swiPor with adjectives and participles. More and most were so popular that they were used regardless of the number of syllables and were even preferred with mono- and disyllabic words. Synthetic and analytical forms were used

6. Account for the plural form of the noun Child.

Children, the plural of child, combines a vowel change and the irregular ending -en (a survival of an Old English plural inflection).

7. Can expression “more taller” be accepted as a norm? Explain its use.

No, because monosyllabic words required endings ra- and –est/-ost. Later on these suffixes changed to –er and –est.

8. in english there are no different forms for subjects and objects. To keep them apart we have a strict word order. S+P+ID+DO+adverbial of place+adverbial of time. While in OE word order was not at that importance because of the inflected forms which expressed different grammatical categories

9. Explain the differences between English spelling and pronunciation.

By the sixteenth century English spelling was becoming increasingly out of step with pronunciation owing mainly to the fact that printing was fixing it in its late Middle English form just when various sound changes were having a far-reaching effect on pronunciation.

Chief among these was the so-called ‘Great Vowel Shift’, which can be illustrated (with much simplification) from the three vowel sounds in mite, meet, and mate. In Middle English these were three long vowels with values similar to their Latin or continental counterparts [i:], [e:], and [a:] (roughly the vowel sounds of thief, fete, and palm); the spelling was therefore ‘phonetic’.

After the shift:

· long i became a diphthong (probably in the sixteenth century pronounced [əi] with a first element like the [ə] of the first syllable in ago)

· long e took its place with the value [i:]

· Long a became a front vowel, more like that of air to begin with, but later [e:].

A parallel change affected the back vowels of mouth and moot. Hence the mismatch of the long vowel sounds of English with their counterparts in other European languages.

Additionally, during the period a number of sets of vowel sounds that had formerly been distinct became identical, while their spelling distinction was largely maintained, resulting in a further mismatch of spelling and pronunciation.

Numerous conditioned changes (i.e. changes in the sound of a vowel or consonant when in the vicinity of another sound) also contributed to the mismatch. When long vowels were shortened in certain positions a given spelling could show either on the one hand a long vowel or diphthong or on the other a short vowel that would normally be spelt another way.

Changes in the pronunciation of consonant sounds during the early modern English period contributed significantly to the incongruity between spelling and pronunciation. Accordingly consonant sounds ceased to be pronounced in many contexts.

Spelling: general principles

At the start of the sixteenth century the main systematic differences in spelling from present-day English were as follows. (Examples are taken from the Ordynarye of crystyanyte or of crysten men, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 1502.)

i). u and v were graphic variants of a single letter. The form v was used at the beginning of a word and u in all other positions, irrespective of whether the sound was a vowel or a consonant.

ii). similarly, j was only an extended form of i. i was generally used for both the vowel and for the consonant sound (as in jam) in most positions in a word: its capital form, which resembles J, was beginning to be used in initial position for the consonant sound.

iii). The final ‘silent’ -e was much more commonly found, not only as a marker of a ‘long’ vowel in the preceding syllable (as in take), but with no phonetic function, and sometimes after an unnecessarily doubled final consonant.

iv). The letter y was commonly used for the vowel i, especially in the vicinity of ranging or ‘minim’ letters such as m, n, and u.

v). Double e (ee) or e..e was used for two different long front vowels: the ‘close’ vowel of meet and the formerly ‘mid’ vowel of meat, mete (the significance of this is now obscured since in most words the two sounds have become identical). The spelling e..e was gradually restricted to the latter while additionally ea was beginning to be introduced as an alternative spelling.

vi). Similarly o (oo) or o..e were often used for two different long back vowels: the ‘close’ vowel of moot and the ‘mid’ vowel of moat, mote. o..e was gradually restricted to the latter and, during the 16th century, oa was introduced on the analogy of ea.

vii). Instead of t in the ending now usually spelt -tion the letter c was frequently used.

10. paskui ziurek i desimta klausima tai as manau kad ats yra kazkas pnasaus kad anglu kalba ne karta buvo prie isnykimo ribos, pvz kai anglija uzpuole skandinavai-vikingai, jie buvo labai ziaurus, degino anglu baznycias, su angliskomis knygomis, ir anglija kovojo su tuo 300metu, o paskui kai juos uzpuole normanai 1066metais, taigi anglu jkalba buvo uzdrausta, visa nobility kalbejo prancuziskai, ir prnacuziski zodziai gretitai skverbesi i anglu zodyna, taciau del tam tikry priezasciu (paskaityk 11 klausima) anglu kalba isliko, ir po to kai prarado normandija, tada anglai vel eme atsigrezti i anglu kalba, ja eme kalbeti dalis nobility, ji buvo naudojama baznycioje ir mokyklose, o galiausiai, suprate savo kalbos reiksme jie atidare parlamenta anglu kalab ir paskui chaucer parase canterbury tales kas buvo galutinis taskas, tada angli kalba atgime.

11. Explain the use of Present Tense forms to express futurity in English.

OE verbs were characterized by tense, mood, number, person grammatical categories. Grammatical category of tense in OE was grammatically expressed by present or past. They expressed future only by present. From context or from modal words we would be able to see that it is a future.

language varieties

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Background info

Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland. The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English. In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems.

Scottish English results from language contact between Scots and the Standard English of England after the 17th century. The resulting shifts to English usage by Scots-speakers resulted in many phonological compromises and lexical transfers, often mistaken for mergers by linguists unfamiliar with the history of Scottish English.

Convention traces the influence of the English of England upon Scots to the 16th-century Reformation and to the introduction of printing. Printing arrived in London in 1476, but the first printing press was not introduced to Scotland for another 30 years. Texts such as the Geneva Bible, printed in English, were widely distributed in Scotland in order to spread Protestant doctrine.

King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603. Since England was the larger and richer of the two Kingdoms, James moved his court to London in England. The poets of the court therefore moved south and began adapting the language and style of their verse to the tastes of the English market. To this event McClure attributes the sudden and total eclipse of Scots as a literary language. The continuing absence of a Scots translation of the Bible meant that the translation of King James into English was used in worship in both countries.

The Act of Union of 1707 amalgamated the Scottish and English Parliaments. However the church, educational and legal structures remained separate. This leads to important professional distinctions in the definitions of some words and terms. There are therefore words with precise definitions in Scottish English which have either no place in English. English or have a different definition. This is crucial and is one of the reasons why a professional person qualified in England (except for medical professionals) may only be admitted to a profession in Scotland by further examination.


While pronunciation features vary among speakers (depending on region and social status), there are a number of phonological aspects characteristic of Scottish English:

· The ScoE accent is rhotic, and all the vowels and diphthongs appear unchanged before /r/: beard /bird/, laird /lerd/, lard /lard/, moored /murd/, bird /bɪrd/, word /wʌrd/, heard /hɛrd/, herd /hɛ̈rd/, cord /kɔrd/, hoard /hord/. A distinction is made between the vowels in such words as sword /sɔrd/ and soared /sord/. Scots are widely supposed to trill the /r/, and many do, but majority usage is the alveolar tap in some phonetic environments and a fricative or frictionless continuant in others.

· There are distinct phonemes in such words as rise and rice. The /aɪ/ diphthong occurs in rise, tie/tied, sly, why while the /əɪ/ diphthong occurs in rice, tide, slide, while, as well as in such borrowings from Scots as ay(e) always, gey very, gyte mad.

· There is no distinction between cam and calm, both having /a/, between cot and caught, both having /ɔ/, and between full and fool, both having /u/.

· ScoE retains from Scots the voiceless velar fricative /x/: for example, in such names as Brechin and MacLachlan, such Gaelicisms as loch and pibroch, such Scotticisms as dreich and sough, and for some speakers such words of Greek provenance as patriarch and technical.

· The wh- in such words as whale, what, why is pronounced /hw/ and such pairs as which/witch are sharply distinguished.

It is a feature of Scottish English that they don’t have as many vowel sounds as speakers with English accents. They lack about five vowel sounds that English speakers use. Scottish speakers don’t use a schwa sound like English speakers. The sound in ‘the’ is the same as the sound in ‘bit’.

Also, for Scottish speakers, ‘bird’ and ‘heard’ are not homophones [the same sound], although they are for speakers with an English accent. Scottish speakers lack the vowel that English speakers use here. The vowel in ‘heard’ will always be the same as the vowel in ‘bet’, ‘let’ and ’set’ and the vowel in ‘bird’ can be the same as the vowel in ‘but’ or ‘bit’ depending on the accent and gender of the speaker.

Scots, like many speakers from the North of England, also do not differentiate between front and back ‘a’ sounds as in ‘Sam’ and ‘Psalm’; both sounds are always fronted and short. Nor do they differentiate between ‘cot’ and ‘caught’; both these words are homophones for Scottish English speakers and they both have a short vowel in them.

Characteristic vocabulary and idioms:

– words in English that are of Scottish origin: “caddie”, “collie”, “cosy”, “eerie”, “golf”, “lilt”, “pony”, “raid”, “uncanny’, “weird”, “wraith’ etc.

– words from Scots: “clan”, “dreich” (dull), “haggis”, “kilt”, “wee”, “whisky”

– “will” replaces “shall” in most contexts (“Will I turn out the light?”)

– idioms: “How are you keeping?” (How are you?), “That’s me away” (I’m going now), “The back of nine o’clock” (Soon after nine o’clock).

Characteristic grammatical (morphological and syntactic) features:

– passive may be expressed by “get”: “We got overtaken”

– negation with “not” preferred over contracted forms (“He’ll not come” vs. “He won’t come”)

– verbs of motion may be elided before adverbs of motion (“I’ll away home then”)

– “have” behave more like an auxiliary: it contracts more often (“He’d a good time”),

doesn’t need “do”-support (“Had you a good time?”)

– “need” can occur with a past participle as its object (“My car needs washed”)


O: Any linguistic overview of Texas must begin with the realization that English is, historically, the second language of the state. Even setting aside the languages of Native Americans in the area, Spanish was spoken in Texas for nearly a century before English was. With the opening up of Texas to Anglo settlement in the 1820s, however, English quickly became as widely used as Spanish, although bilingualism was not uncommon in early Texas.

Ž: While the outcome of the Texas Revolution meant that Anglos would outnumber Hispanics for many years and that English would be the dominant language in the new nation and state, the early Hispanic settlement of the state insured that much of that culture and many Spanish words would blend with the culture and language that Anglos brought from the east to from a unique Texas mix. This complex dialect situation was further complicated, esp. in southeast and south central Texas, by significant direct migration from Europe.

O: After the 1990, the number of immigrants grew rapidly. The new immigration is steadily changing the demographic profile of the state and insures that Spanish will remain a vital language in Texas for some time.

Ž: Phonological features:

1. constricted post-vocalic /r/ in words like forty, and intrusive /r/ in words like warsh

2. the loss of the offglide of /ai/ in words like ride and right (so that they sound like rahd and raht)

3. drop the g’s in “-ing. I’m taking a book - I’m takin’ a book.

4. “ah” instead of the long “i”. I’m takin’ a book - Ah’m takin’ a book.

5. when the “-ing” is found within a word people say ‘-ang’. singing- sangin, finger- fanger

O: Grammatical features:

· quasi-modal (partially modal) fixin to. I can‘t talk to you. I‘m fixin to leave. It‘s fixin to rain.

· multiple modals. I can‘t go today, but I might could go tomorrow.

may could

might could

might supposed to

may can

might oughta

might’ve used to

may will

might can

might woulda had oughta

may should

might should

oughta could

may supposed to

might would

better can

may need to

might better

should oughta

may used to

might had better

used to could

can might

musta coulda

could might

would better

· perfective done. I‘ve done finished that. She has done left.

Ž: Lexical pecularities:

· a lot of Spanish words (frijoles, olla, arroyo, remuda, etc)

· tank- stock pond

· maverick- stray or unbranded

· doggie- calf


· roughneck- oil field worker

· howdy- a general greeting; a shortened form of “How do you do?“

· Y’all- a second-person plural pronoun; a shortened form of “you all”

· Phrases : Like the dogs was after him. – in a big hurry, ugly as a mud fence, older than two trees


Indian English is the group of English dialects spoken primarily in the Republic of India.

As a result of British colonial rule until Indian independence in 1947, English is an official language of India and is widely used in both spoken and literary contexts. The rapid growth of India’s economy towards the end of the 20th century led to large-scale population migration between regions of the Indian subcontinent and the establishment of English as a common lingua franca.

With the exception of the relatively small Anglo-Indian community and some families of full Indian ethnicity where English is the primary language spoken in the home, speakers of English in the Indian subcontinent learn it as a second language in school. Also, science and technical education is mostly undertaken in English and, as a result, most university graduates in these sectors are fairly proficient in English.

Idiomatic forms derived from Indian literary and vernacular language have become assimilated into Indian English in different ways according to the native language of speakers. Nevertheless, there remains general homogeneity in phonetics, vocabulary, and phraseology between variants of the Indian English dialect.

Indian English is a recognized dialect of English, just like British Received Pronunciation (RP, or BBC English) or Australian English, or Standard American. It has a lot of distinctive pronunciations, some distinctive syntax, and quite a bit of lexical variation.


- a tendency to drop the -ed ending after /k/ and /t/ (ex: walked became walk)

- /ð/ (as in then) is pronounced as an interdental /d/

- sometimes a is used before vowel-initial words instead of an. (an – a appointment)

- the consonants /p/, /t/, and /k/ tend to be unaspirated. E.g. pig, train.

- in some regions, /v/ and /w/ are not distinguished (volleyball is the same as wallyball), just like/p/ and /f/, /t/ and /θ/, /d/ and /ð/, and /s/ and /š/

- Suffixes and function words which are weak in other varieties of English (of, to, etc.) tend not to be reduced in Indian English

Vocabulary and colloquialisms

· acting pricey - being snobbish.

· bunk a class - To skip class without permission

· carrying - To be pregnant

· cent per cent - “100 per cent”

· club - To merge or put two things together. “‘Just club it together’”

· expire - To die, especially in reference to one’s family member.

· marketing - Shopping (e.g. “… has gone marketing” to mean “… has gone to the market to buy groceries.”)

· mess - A dining hall, especially used by students at a dormitory.

· out of station - “Out of town”.

· pass out - Graduating, as in “I passed out of the university in 1995“. (In American/British English, this usage is limited to graduating out of military academies.)

· pindrop silence - Extreme silence (quiet enough to hear a pin drop).

· prepone - To bring something forward in time. As opposed to postpone.

· shift - To relocate

· Tell me - A phrase to start the main conversation after initial pleasantries or greetings have been exchanged.

· wheatish (complexion) - Light, creamy brown, or having a light brown complexion.

· Where do you stay? - ‘Where do you live?’ or ‘Where’s your house?’. (This is also used in Scottish and South African English, and in the African American dialect of English in the United States.)

· cousin-brother (male cousin)

· crore (ten million)


“The progressive in ’static’ [also called 'stative' -- jl] verbs: ‘I am understanding it.’ ‘She is knowing the answer.’

Variations in noun number and determiners: ‘He performed many charities.’ ‘She loves to pull your legs.’

Prepositions: ‘pay attention on, discuss about, convey him my greetings’

Tag questions: ‘You’re going, isn’t it?’ ‘He’s here, no?’

Word order: ‘Who you have come for?’ ‘They’re late always.’ ‘My all friends are waiting.’

interchange ‘have, has, had’ very comfortably.


Aboriginal English is the name given to the various kinds of spoken English by Aboriginal people throughout Australia. They have much in common with other varieties of Australian English, but there are distinctive features of accent, grammar, words and meanings, as well as language use.


Before the British invasion of Australia at the end of the eighteenth century, there were approximately 250 different indigenous languages spoken throughout the country, with approximately 600 dialects. The languages were very complex, and the differences between neighbouring languages were often as complicated as the differences between English and Spanish, for example.

The British were generally reluctant to learn any of the Aboriginal languages. At first this was a simplified kind of language, used only between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in situations of limited contact. This kind of English is referred to by linguists as ‘pidgin English’.

But within a few generations this pidgin began to develop an important communicative function between different Aboriginal groups who did not have a shared language. The social and linguistic development of the early pidgin English gave birth to Aboriginal dialects of English all over the country, as well as to two creole languages in some northern areas (Kriol and Torres Strait Creole).

But in some areas it seems that Aboriginal English developed not from pidgin English, but from the Aboriginalization of English as speakers learnt the language. That is, Aboriginal people in areas where there was no pidgin language made English into an Aboriginal English by bringing into it accents, words, grammar and ways of speaking from their Aboriginal languages and those of their parents.

It is both linguistically inaccurate and derogatory to use the term ‘pidgin English’ to refer to the kinds of English spoken by Aboriginal people today.

Attitudes and current use

Aboriginal English is probably the first language of the majority of Aboriginal people in Australia, who make up approximately 2% of the total population of the country. While many people speak it as their ‘mother tongue’, in more remote areas it is spoken as a second or third or fourth language, by speakers of ‘traditional’ Aboriginal languages and the creole languages.

Although it is primarily an oral language, Aboriginal English is now being used in some published literature.

Like many other non-standard language varieties, Aboriginal English has a history of being dismissed as ‘bad English’. It is only since the 1960s that linguists and educators have recognized it as a valid, rule-governed language variety.


There are a number of Aboriginal English dialects, some of which are close to Standard English ( the ‘light’ varieties), and some of which are close to Kriol (the ‘heavy’ varieties). Heavy Aboriginal English is spoken mainly in the more remote areas, where it is influenced by Kriol, while light varieties of Aboriginal English are spoken mainly in urban, rural and metropolitan areas. But even in these areas, some Aboriginal people in certain Aboriginal situations use a heavier Aboriginal English.

Japanese English


Engrish (イングリッシュ?) is a slang term for the misuse of the English language by native speakers of some East Asian languages. The term itself relates to Japanese speaker’s tendency to inadvertently substitute the English phonemes ‘R’ and ‘L’ for one another, because the Japanese language has one alveolar consonant in place for both. The related term “wasei-eigo” refers to pseudo-anglicisms that have entered into everyday Japanese.

While the term may refer to spoken English, it is more often used to describe written English. Engrish can be found in many places, including signs, menus, and advertisements. Terms such as Japanglish, Japlish or Janglish for Japan.

Roots of the phenomenon

First is the great difference between Japanese and English.

· Japanese word order;

· the frequent omission of subjects in Japanese;

· the absence of articles;

· a near-complete absence of consecutive consonants (owing to the syllabary nature of the Japanese language);

· difficulties in distinguishing l and r all contribute to substantial problems using Standard English effectively.[1] Indeed, Japanese have tended to score comparatively poorly on international tests of English.[2] Unwittingly poor translations from online language translation tools are used without consulting a native English speaker.

The second factor has been the use of English for “decorative” or “design” rather than functional purposes; i.e., for Japanese consumption, not for English speakers per se, and as a way of appearing “smart, sophisticated and modern,” in much the same way as Japanese and similar writing script is used in western fashion. Indeed, it is claimed that in such decorative English “there is often no attempt to try to get it right, nor do the vast majority of the Japanese population ever attempt to read the English design element in question. There is therefore less emphasis on spell checking and grammatical accuracy.”

In popular culture

Engrish features prominently in Japanese pop culture. Many popular Japanese songs and television-show themes feature disjointed phrases in English amongst the otherwise Japanese lyrics. Japanese marketing firms helped create this popularity, resulting in an enormous array of advertisements, products, and clothing marked with English phrases that seem amusing or bizarre to those proficient in English. These new Engrish terms are generally short-lived, as they are used more for fashion than meaning.

Instances of Engrish due to poor translation were frequently found in many early video games produced in Japan, oftentimes due to the creators not having enough (or just not wanting to spend enough) money for a proper translation. One well-known and popular example of Engrish in pop culture is the video game translation phenomenon “All your base are belong to us“, which also became an Internet meme.

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