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1. 700-300BC Celtic period

2. 50BC – 410AD Roman Britain

3. 410-1066 Anglo-Saxon and Danish period

4. 563 Christianity from Ireland

5. 597 Christianity from Rome

6. 1066 The Battle of Hastings

7. 1066-1154 House of Normandy

8. 1154-1399 House of Plantagenets

9. 1215 Magna Carta

10. 1265, 1295, 1332 Parliament

11. 1284 Unification of England and Wales

12. 1337-1453 The One Hundred Years War

13. 1476 Printing

14. 1485-1603 House of Tudor

15. 1509-1547 Henry VIII

16. 1558-1603 Elizabeth I

17. 1564-1616 William Shakespeare

18. 1603-1714 House of Stewarts

19. 1628 The Petition of Rights

20. 1649-1653 Republic (the Commonwealth)

21. 1665 The plague of London

22. 1666 The Great Fire of London

23. 1689 The Bill of Rights

24. 1707 The Scottish Act of Union

25. 1714-1901 House of Hanover

26. 1801 Act of Ireland, union between Britain and Ireland

27. 1837-1901 The Victorian Age

28. 1920 Northern Ireland as part of the UK

29. 1952 Elizabeth II

30. 1961 Treaty of Rome, the UK application for the EU membership

31. 1963 France vetoes the application

32. 1973 Membership in the EU

33. 1975 Referendum

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Celtic period 700 – 300 BC

5000BC Br became an island. Celtic people were tall warriors. They settled in W. part of Ireland. They came from present Germany, Netherlands. The plunder people lived in an island. They mixed. Celts built hill forts. Different Celtic tribes trade with continental tribes and became an international tribe. 1. Clan was the highest unit of Celtic society, which consisted of many families. Every culture was the base of the economic life. Every family has their own land but it was the property of the clan. 2. Druids were powerful, included magicians, priests. They kept calendar. 3. Bards- artists. They made a metal stuff. Celts had their own language. But only two groups are remained: Gaelic – spoken in Ireland, the Isle of Man and Britannic – now consist of Cornish Welsh, spoken in Wales and Brittany. Words origins from Celtic: Kent, Deira, Bernicia, York, The Down, Ouse, Thames and Avon.

Roman Britain 50 BC – 410 AD

Another major period in Br. In 50 BC Romans began to invade Br. And they occupied the bigger part of nowadays Br. in England, Wales and lowland of Scotland. They can’t occupy Caledonia, so they built a strong wall (Hadrian’s Wall). Also they built houses, roads. When the resistance decreased local people assimilated to Roman culture. Some people begin to write in Latin. Romans bring the Christianity in the 4th cen. Very little linguistic heritage is left.

Anglo - Saxon and Danish period 410 – 1066 In 410 AD the first Germanic groups began to attack GB and they began to settle in big groups. The Saxons, Angles and Jutes later became Anglo – Saxons. They came from nowadays Netherland, Frisian Islands, Germany and Denmark. The Celts have to be treating to the west. One of the most important people was the King Arthur. Under his leadership Celts manage to win battle and so they survive. A–S were the best farmers. They drained the wetland, formed the countryside. They also colonised untreated land, found the new settle land. They became cultivate. They invented the plough. Also they made that each village became a close unit community. They had strong national identity. Villages were self-governing. Each village had their own tribal king, who was chosen by warriors for life. A few villages were united into kingdom. The tree kingdoms were Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex. The whole land was divided into administrative units called shire. King’s Council was known as the Witan. Each king had an advisable body of 30 – 40 men, who were clergy and laymen. They acted as present-day ministers. King didn’t have to obey them. But he didn’t ignore them. He had afraid them because they could change the King. If the King’s son proved that he is worth to be the King. He can be too young, so the ministers could chose the other.

A– S brought the Christianity to Br. In 563 St. Columba landed on the Scottish island of Iona, bringing Christianity from Ireland to Scotland. In 597 Pope Gregory the Great sent monk August with 40 other monks to Kent. There were two ways of Christianity coming, from Ireland and Italy. The Christians faith had a humanising function. They believed that they can live long if they stop the cruel wars. They stressed the marriage. They began the art of writing. The outstanding monk Venerable Bede wrote many books on history, drama… His famous work was the History of the English church and people. It was decided that the official church would be centred in Canterbury. Language. Latin influenced English. Latin remained in religion words. Another group words was of learning, origin from Latin; names of plants, illness (cancer, fever), animal names, clothes, household items, food.

Vikings invasion

From the end of 8th cen. new invaders come to GB. Nobody could stop them. They had strong navy and army with good leaders. Br. didn’t have any military. They were quarrelling among themselves. Vikings destroyed the tree biggest kingdoms. Only one Saxons kingdom remains – Wessex, ruled by King Alfred the Great. He could not expel the Vikings but he stopped them. He built ships and it helped to protect Bristol Channel from Vikings. He decided to make a treaty with Vikings. He allowed occupying the northern part of England and it became known as Dainlaw. Alfred extended Wessex to north. In the Dainlaw people became farmers, fishermen. They started mixing with the local. Language mixed. In time they became as the other local people. The Dainlaw was destroyed and the long period of peace began. It was golden age of learning. Vikings taught Englishman to write. The peace period lasted until 1066.

The Norman Conquest

Until 1065 - Edward the Confessor. After his death there were two possible heirs: Harold the earl of Wessex and William the duke of Normandy.

1066 – Hastings battle. Since then Norman rule was established and it lasted till 1154. When William was crown of king, England saw the period of war. He made England strong, but people were afraid. William destroyed Saxon kingdoms and give the land to his followers. He also built for himself the Tower of London. He strengthens his position by centralisation – one king for all country. He established the Royal Council which was dependent of the king. He also forced the feudal system. He made all the people directly respond to the king. Such system let the king be known of all the people. William I kept the land for himself, in case to be powerful. He brought the law of primogeniture (pirmagimyste) which means that the first son heritage father’s stuff. The monarchy became hereditary. He made an inventory commission which collected all the information about people. Everything was written in the Doomsday Book. Rich land owners spoke Norman French and poor – English. And those peasants wanted to use that upper language. Many expressions from French became English words. And later those two languages connected and became Middle-English. This language was adopted by all levels of society. Williams died in 1089. He divided his Kingdom to his 3 sons. In 1100 Henry I and 3 sons of William began to quarrel. In order to solve this Henry I married his daughter to Geoffrey of Anion. And their son Henry II started a new house – House of Plantagenet.

House of Plantagenet 1154 – 1399

Henry II came to England in disarray. He wasn’t an Englishman so he can see what to do. He was the man of Europe and England was his empire. He was reeking in western France, Normandy as well as England. He overshadowed even the Pope and the whole Roman Empire. He ruled over far more land than any other king. He ruled his empire energetically. He put the nobles in their places by destroying their castles. He annexed the kingdom of Dublin and began anglosaxation of Ireland. He restored uniform jurisdiction in all the courts. ‘Trial by ordeal’ in which people put their hands in boiling water to prove they’re innocent. Henry abolished this. He established the government. The king wanted to have more power over the church. Henry II was followed by his son Richard I. He participated in Crusade wars. In the III Crusade he was called The Richard of Lionhearted. His brother Prince John was stayed as the king regent. When he became the king John Lockland, he was very greed, so everybody hates him. He stole money from the church and from nobles’ men. He refused to accept the Popes candidate, so the country was under interdict. All the churches were closed. John also began a stupid war with France and lost it.

Magna Carta 1215 was a list of privileges by the barons for themselves, a civil limitation of king’s activities. Magna Carta became a symbol of political freedom. John allowed free elections of bishops and abbots, and that was the deadline of Norman Kingship.

Henry III was involved in wars. Barons were unsatisfied, so they elected Simon de Montfort as the council of barons. 1265 was the first Council meeting. It is an official date of British parliament. 1295 two representatives of each town were invited to attend the Parliament. 1332 there was a split into the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The power of king was dismissing.

Edward I was very great king of England. He made many reforms and was nicknamed as Lawgiver. He established the Royal authority, restored proper government, stamped out the corruption. He united England and Wales in 1284 and brought Scotland under his control. Scots regained their independence until his death. He knew that the Welsh would never accept rule by an English speaking owe low. H held up the baby his son, crying to the Welsh, he is your royal king who can’t speak English. From that time he was the Prince of Wales.

Decline of feudalism

The system began to shake from the top where the links between the king and his vassals began to weaken. When the king went to war, he had a right to 40 days fighting service of all his lords. But 40 days isn’t enough, the nobles refused to fight. The king was forced to pay solidarii to fight for him. His army get money. The most decisive step of disappearing feudalism is becoming of the plague in 14th century. 1348 – 1549 in two years the black dead killed almost half of England population. There were too few people to work on the land, so it was left uncultivated. The value of labour increased. Those few who were free to work refused to do so. Villains refused to do the customary on the land. Some of lander put sheep instead of horses. Many villains went to the wood to become Robin Hood band. Others simply moved to higher wages. The Black Death changed village life. The feudalism disintegrated. By the middle of 15th century few landlords have farms. The villains slowly involved into yeomen who became an important part of agricultural system. Some of them were counted among the landed gentry and even for the poorest land became more comforting. They lived in proper houses, no more in huts.

The One Hundred Years War 1337 – 1453 It was a series of wars between England and France. In 1328 Charles IV of France died without the male heir. Edward IV and mother Isabel of France laid claim to the throne. Edward was supported by all political groups. The first victory was in 1346 at Crecy and in 1347 at Calais. These victories helped England to believe that south western territories of France would come under the control of English king. The Treaty of Bretagne ended this faze of war. By the treaty Edward gave up his claim to French throne and return for Calais. In 1369 – 1375 the French started a Guerrilla war (partisan). It was the second part of the war, which ended in 1375. By that type English were driven out of all French provinces except Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne. The country’s economy was very poor and this situation led the introduction of Poll tax of every individual, without reference of incoming property. Every male has to pay taxes and this angered people and against that was led a movement with John Wycliffe. He championed the right of the people, against the abuses of the church. He attacked orthodox doctrine, questioned the authority of the Pope in Rome. He was sure that everyone should read a bible and he translated it from Latin to English. His teaching was heresy. Lolland was the first who started the peasants’ revolt. They were John’s followers. They demanded that the church would be simple as in the early Christianity.

The Peasants’ Revolt 1381

It was the result of Black Death and Poll tax. Richard II promised to fulfil the demands to remove all restrictions of trade and labour and to treat all people as equal and dependant on the king only. But these were empty promises. The peasants’ army was captured and hanged. The revote was crushed but that was never a complete return to the previous system. In the 15th century farm leases were introduced and financial earnings. Then there were no slaves anymore.

House of Tudor 1485 – 1603

During this period the world was changing in many ways. That was a period of Renaissance. It brought new ideas of art, architecture, science and medicine. It was the age of discoveries. Seamen were exploring the oceans. The Pope divided the world between Spain and Portugal, but his power to control all European countries was demolishing. J. Gutenberg of Mainz had begun the use of movable metal type of printing. W. Caxton introduced the art of printing in England in 1476. The works of cancer, Langland and others came within treads of the cult read. Numerous school were built, literacy increased and the great impetus was given to literature. The clergy became less powerful when people could read and write. The invention of firearms swept away of heavily armed knights. The feudal system had disappeared. The power of nobility declined and a new middle class appeared. The king was becoming the greatest and most powerful person in the land. Henry VIII was a true representative of Renaissance. He had connections with the men of the New Learning (J. Colet and T. More). He felt that the power of the church endangered his own authority and that the money given to the church reduced his own income. And he wished to centralise the state power by challenging the authority of the church. He had another reason for quarrel the church. The Pope would not let Rein divorce Catherine of Aragon (the King of Spain sister). The reason was that she had not giving him the son he wanted. In 1531 he made English bishops acknowledge as the head of church in England. On 1534 he got parliament the act of supremacy which described Henry as the only supreme head in each of the Church of England. Henry had a great deal of support as anticlericalism was wide spread. Henry’s separation from Rome was a political act. First of all, he was interested in gaming control of the church and lain his hands on wealth. Secondly, he didn’t approve of protest of reform published the pamphlet of Luther. The succession to the throne that is England’s peace and safety and lies constant need for money were more important to him than religious considerations. A careful survey of church property was carried out hundreds of monasteries were closed. Their property and land were confiscated. Monks and nuns were evicted becoming beggars. Henry finally got a divorce from Catherine and he was free to marry Anne Boleyn. But she gave birth to another daughter. He married six times and when he died he left behind three children: Marry (daughter of Catherine), Elisabeth (daughter of Anne) and Edward.

Edward VI became king at the age of 9, but he soon died. His sister Mary has welcomed. She became the queen. Soon she became very unpopular. She took revenge on protestant occupies enemies and restored Catholicism by force. Elisabeth I followed Mary as a queen she was a Protestant. She won parliament’s corporation in the difficult business of making a religious settlement after many years of violence. The act of supremacy and uniformity in 1559 re-established the Anglican Church with Protestant doctrine but retained Catholic religion and the office of bishops. As the result it made possible the establishment. The church became part of the state machine. The parish became unit of state and church administration. Parish priests were advised to begin schools for children in their parishes and that was the first intervention to education on a national scale. Foreign Police. She was a skilful politician and diplomat. She played of her enemies France and Spain one against the other. She avoided marriage to a king of France and Spain because either marriage would have meant another attempt to make England a Catholic country. She referred to be married to her country and people. She established public confidence and national identity. England supported international trade which resulted in conflicts with Spain. Spain didn’t allowed English to trade with Spanish colonies in America but English pirates and adventures attacked Spanish ships looking them gold and silver. Philip of Spain knew that Elisabeth encouraged there seadogs and reserved her claim of the profits. Philip reserved her claim of the profits. He decided that had to occupy England. He sent the armada the largest fleets the worlds had ever known to attack England in 1588. But the skill of English sea captains defeated the invincible armada and ended Spanish plans to invade England. Achievements: Elizabethan age was a great flowering of artistic achievements. The language took a great step forward. And called people speak correct English which was based on London English a standard which was spread by printing. Literacy greatly increased. Architecture: half-timbered houses painted in black and white can be seen in all over England. It has its effects even today. There are many houses in mock Tudor style. In the field of painting England made an outstanding contribution developed by miniature portrait. In music England enjoyed the most fruitful period. J. Dorland famous composer of songs. W. Byrd is best remembered as the founder of keyboard music. Writers of poetry and sonnets were W. Raleigh, Sidney. Ch. Marlow and Shakespeare were the play writers. Shakespeare also created a new form of sonnets. Literature and music were combined in masques.

The Poor Laws 1601

The end of Elisabeth, each parish was made responsible of its poor. The system – poor laws lasted until 18th century. Overseers were appointed. Able work was sent to work at houses. The old and ill were given money – outdoor relief. Orphans and children of the poor people were apprenticed, to learn and useful job. The parishes had to pay of the poor, homeless buried.

House of Stewarts 1603 – 1714

James VI of Scotland became James I of England. His obsession to English throne meant three things: 1. England and Scotland became one kingdom. 2. The power over Scottish affairs moved from Edinburg to Westminster. But the Scots kept their own parliament, church, law, and army. 3. English and Scottish flags became one – the Union Jack.

James was generally disliked. Catholics thought that he liked Protestants and visa versus.

Gunpowder Plot 1605

Catholic dissidents attempted to destroy the king and parliament. Guy Fawkes was burned. November 15 is celebrated as burn fire night. Believing of the divine of kings James quarrelled with parliament and started to rule without it. Parliament didn’t raise taxes, he dissolved it. James found that without parliament he hadn’t money. James was succeeded by Charles I and the conflict with parliament were still intensified. King believed he was absolutely powerful, his authority was from God. He thought himself to be above the law. Parliament believed that the king rules by the consent of people. Charles made conceptions of the petition of rights which states: Parliament controls the national budget and the law. The king can raise money only through parliament. Nobody can be imprisoned without lawful reason. It ignored the king’s divine rights and established ruled of government by parliament. It was an important step towards the British system of constitutional monarchy. The parliament was called back. Parliament army was formed, civil war began. The royalists were defeated by the ‘Roundheads’. There were parliamentarians led by Oliver Cromwell. The king was held at Westminster and was sent to death.

The Commonwealth 1649 – 1653 Britain was leaderless chaotic republic. Order was restored when O. Cromwell was made lord protector. He ruled without parliament. Country became powerful. Many countries were colonised. Ireland was subdued. This period is known as Commonwealth. Theatres and pubs were closed. People were fined for playing games, travelling on Sundays, and colourful dress. In 1658 prince Charles was invited to take the throne. That period is called restoration of the monarchy.

Charles II returned from France and was crowned. He promised the freedom of religion. He also returned ‘Mary England’. He was nicknamed Mary monarch.

Plague and the Great Fire in London 1665 Plague in London decimated the population. It was followed by a fire in 1666 which swept away most of ancient city. The city was rebuilt almost exactly as before. But instead the wood they used brick and stone.

First Political parties

The Wigs and the Tories. The Wigs represented the interest of commercial classes and dissenters. They were afraid of an absolutist monarchy and Catholicism. They in favour of individual liberty and religion toleration believed that the authority of the crown had to be dependant on the consent of parliament. The Tories represented the interest of the Anglican Church and the land gentry. They didn’t want Catholic king, believed that parliament must obeyed the king. They opposed the idea of religion toleration, advocated strong government, upheld the authority of the crown and church. James II intended to make England a Catholic country. He announced he would ignore any laws he didn’t like. He put Catholics in position of power but nobody wants civil war, so none of parties did anything. After some time, to prevent a long line of Catholic monarch, the parties joined to rescue the situation. It was suggested that England would ask William of Orange to declare a war of James II when he arrived in England James found his own hooks deserting him and joining the trades. He ran away to France. William was known as Glorious Revolution. William and Mary (James daughter) accepted The Bill of Rights in 1689. It was the condition on which the English throne was given to them. They joined in sovereigns. The revolution consisted in the fact that parliament made him a king not by inheritors but by their choice. No taxation or standing away without the consent of parliament. Free elections of empires and freedom of speech. Punishments must be beekeeping with the offence. The principle of the ‘social contract’ became unwritten constitution. It established the power of parliament over the monarchy.

House of Hanover 1714 – 1901

All the kings before George couldn’t talk in English. George was born in England. He can speak. He tried to bring back personal royal group. He did this by using bravery to form his own political group. The Prime Minister Lord North tried to impose taxes on the American colonists. It resulted American war on independence. Britain lost it. George I ruling ended. The loss of American colonist had its rules in Britain. Economical development was stopped. The colonists had to buy goods from the motherland or pay heavy duties. The colonies were forced to sell all their export to Britain. The war in America gave new ideas of democracy and independence, leading to a redual of the parties struggle in Britain. 1782 – 1820 the Tories came to power. They were seeking for national power and the suppression of liberal movement. England extended its possessions of colonies. The Treaty of Vienna gave Britain Helgoland, Malta, the Cope of St Good Hope, and Ceylon, part of Guiana, many Pacific and West Indian islands. Britain also brought a great part of India and established the colony in Australia. In 1800 the parliament union in Britain and Ireland was affected. Britain became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This was unpopular in Ireland and led to discordance and violence.

The Industrial Revolution

The term refers to the change from small scale production to large. This change was intentioned of new inventions, technical process and the growing use of machinery. In Br. it began with textile industrial. The Ind. Rev. increase in population let the demand of increase production. The steam engine was the most important in Br., leading to rapid industrial development. The revolution positive results: 1.West increase in production and national wealth. 2. The creation of new industries: engineering and the machine-tool industry. 3. A long lasting commercial and political supremacy in Britain. The negative results of Ind. Rev.: 1. the destruction of fear landscapes and the growth of new towns. 2. The development of slums in these industrial towns. 3. The introduction of extremely hard working conditions for factory workers. 4. The rise of children work.

The Victorian Age

After the death of King William IV his niece Victoria acceded to the thrown. Consciences, hard working, strictly moral she requested the monarchy from the content into which George IV and his brothers have punched in. She made the crown the best plugged institution in the country. During her aim the Br. Empire grew to cover a quarter of the earth’s surface. People couldn’t imagine their life without her. Br. Industrial wealth was increasing but there was wide spread distress among the lower classes. The reason was that 1/10th of the population were living quite poorly. There were a lot of strikes and mob actions. R. Peel the Conservative Prime Minister tried to solve these problems by the following actions: 1- by removing duties and lowering tariffs. 2- by improving the national system of finance (stabilizing the currency and reducing the national debt). 3- by transforming the system of taxation. In 1851 Victoria opened the exhibition on “Industries of all nations” in the Crystal Palace in London in order to show the greatness of empire of Br. Industry. Br. had reserves of cone and iron and it exported to Europe. From these goods Br made ships, steam engines and machinery to manufacture traditional goods. All these cheeps goods were transported to all colonies and to the Middle East. Br built and owned more than a half of the worlds shipping. This commercial and industrial empire was supported by a world wide banking system. In 19th cent. Br built national railway system to transport goods. But in 1851 government made regulations for passenger trains. It became cheap and easy. The middle class moved from the city center to suburbs (country villages with all the advantages of the town). Cities were overcrowd and unhealthy. In the middle of the century following the colonial epidemics towns appointed health officers and began to provide proper drains and clean water. Progressive towns cleared bad housing providing council houses, library, central bath and concert halls.

W.E. Gladstone & B. Disraeli were two educated arrivals. Their brilliant parliamentary debates made them the center of political controversy. They changed each other as Prime Minister in 1868-1885. In 1886 Disraeli introduced the Bill Reform which gave the votes to the small farmers and city workers. He hoped that the new voters will elect conservatives, but they voted for liberals. Under the Irish church act of 1869 the Irish no longer have to pay taxes for English church which had very few Irish members. After the 1870s Act of Education every child in England, Scotland and Wales, could require to attend the school till the age of 13. A professional civil service was established to do the work of government and civil servants were chosen on the basis of competition. The army was reorganized too. Country councils were established. Elected counselors were responsible for spending money on board schools. In 1872 the secret ballot was introduced. British imperialism reached it’s highest. Social reforms - to help the working class. In 1900 Australia, 1907 New Zeeland became a Commonwealth members, it was a separated state but with one parliament in Canberra and monarch as a head. This self government in these countries began to change from the empire to the commonwealth.

Socialism; Labor party
Economical depression, unemployment brought social and political edition. This satisfaction in all trades resulted in strong support for the trade unions and the establishment for relief funs for strikers. The growing power of the workers led eventually to the foundation of the Labor party. Social conditions and changes:-social conditions of the pour greatly improved, -prices fell by 40%, wages doubled, -poor families had better conditions, food, -Redbrick universities were established in the industrial cities, -authority of the church was weakened, -travelling for pleasure began, -cricket and football became mass entertainments.

The 20th century

The 1st WW had a big effect on Br. creating civil economic problems weakening Br position as a world power. There were almost 3000000 causalities. They are known as the “lost generation”. Industry had thrived briefly after the 1st WW. Two of Br best pre-war customers Germany and Russian could no longer afford Br. goods after the war. USA and Japan had takes much of Br. export business. Depression swept the country. In 1926 – “National general strike” (ended after nine days). In 1929 a labor government was elected as a result of a strike. A colonial government with some ministers of three main parties was formed to deal with the situation. They raised taxes again; abundant free trade cut its own spending. Unemployment rose, standards of living fell. 3mln people were unemployed. In 1930 Br. Economy began to recover. 1. Huge amounts were invested in heavy industry 2. Amer. industrialists established branches & factories in Br. 3. New housing was built by local councils, private builders 4. The motor industry. Germany annexed Czechoslovak on March in 1939 and on Sept 1st – Poland. Two days later Br and Fr began the 2nd WW. Churchill became the Prime minister (BR). Fr was concordat by Germ, in June and Br remains alone. Germ bombed Br. 360.000 people died in the war. The war had destroyed Br economy, cities. In 1942 liberal W. Beverage outlined the principals of comprehensive security, social system. He reported that social security must provide incomes for these groups.

Post war difficulties:

Br lost many ships, people. The factories were destroyed by bombing, people were asked to tighten their belts. In spite of these difficulties basic industries were nationalized. A program of subsidies was begun. The welfare state was introduced. The concept is based on the acceptation that the Prime Minister must take care of his citizens. It must protect them from illnesses, unemployment, accidents. For more than 25years people were thinking that it was necessary to keep the welfare status. Br became a social democracy.

Foreign and depend policy:

Br policy in the word today is of medium size. Labor government had developed. Br foreign and defense policy still reflexes finance center. It’s concerned to maintain stable commercial economical conditions throughout global connections. Br is the worlds’ 6th largest exporter of goods and 2nd of services. It has substation oversees investments and imports some of the food and basic manufacturing implements. Br membership in international membership organizations after 2nd WW was closely elided with the USA. Br joined NATO (a defense organization which was established in 1949). Currently NATO comprises of 26 members. It allows Br to operate militarily on the international stage. Br can populate military outside NATO. But it’s very expensive. Military divisions are stated in Brunei, Cyprus, and Middle East… Falkland’s war (1982), Gulf wars (1991-2003/4), Afghanistan war (2001). These wars show that Br was able to respond to challenges outside the NATO area. Br has diplomatic relations with 160 nations and is member of 120 international organizations which range from bodies for economic elations to the UN. As a permanent member UK’s Security Council. Br sees the UN as a necessary frame work. UN agency provide forms for discussing issues: terrorism, environment.

Home affairs:

In 1956 the world’s first nuclear power station was opened in England. Cheap electricity from this source, higher standards of education, the Open University gave people chances to obtain degrees. The Beatles and Rolling Stones influenced the attitudes towards life. The class barriers were not eliminated. After the war women fought for equal rights and opportunities. In 1980 – bad housing, unemployment, bad conditions for colored people.

The Empire and the Commonwealth

In the late 1900 larger colonies achieved their independence. In 1931 the Br Empire became the Br Commonwealth of Nations and independence gradually. Most colonies stayed with it. The present Common Wealth: 53 independent states, no elected parliament, no written laws, one political ruler. Each country has their own everything. The C.W. has nearly the 1/3rd of the world’s population composing all different religious, races, nationalities. The C.W. is often described as the family. In Br monarch is used for identification. Its function is only unifying and symbolic.

The UK in EU

The UK was not joined at first. It was thought that this membership will weaken the power. In 1959 the EFTA was created by Br, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Portugal, Island, Switzerland, and Finland as an associate member. It was not long that Br realized that is risked economy and political isolation if it remains outside the community. Steps towards UK membership • 1961 the United Kingdom applied to join • 1963 President de Gaulle of France vetoed the United Kingdom application • 1967 The 4 countries applied again but the French refused to allow negotiations • 1973 the UK, Ireland and Denmark joined the Community on 1 January • 1975 a referendum which confirmed their membership. Advantages of the EU benefits to Britain 1. Over 50% to British trade in goods and services is with the rest of the EU. 8 of the top 10 trading partners are in Europe. 2. Over 3 mln British jobs, and 1/7th of all UK income and production, are linked to trade with other EU member states. 3. The EU forms the largest single market in the world: It contains 372 mln consumers and accounts for 38% of world trade. 4. 1 00.000 Britons work in other EU countries; another 350,000 live there. In 1997 there were 34 mln visits made by UK citizens to other EU countries. 5. Single Market competition has halved the price of air travel to Europe and cut the price of international phone calls by up to 80% since 1984. EU done for the UK:Made peace work. Made Britain more prosperous. Created jobs. Cut prices. Given Britain greater influence. Encouraged overseas education and training. Made British streets safer. Made Britain greener. Protected national identity. Benefits to British Business. EU membership has been good for consumers. Benefits to British Students. Benefits to British Citizens Benefits for British International Interests.

The Monarchy and the functions of it: A monarchy= one + rule. It’s a form of government and has a monarch as a head of state. There are 29 monarchies in the world. The term is used to refer to the people, the dynasty and institution that make up the royal or imperial establishment. The monarch is a symbol of continuity and statehood. Many monarchs have very little real political power. Monarchy is one of the eldest pose of the government which chose in the leadership. Since 1800 stopped being monarchies and became republics, parliamentary democracies or constitutional monarchies. In England this process began with the Magna Carta. The crown as a distinct is one of the oldest secular institutions in Br. Succession to the thrown is still hereditary, but only for Protestants in the direct line of descants. The monarch has several roles and serves formally as 1. the head of states, executive, judiciary, legislature, 2. Commander in chief of the armed forces 3. Supreme governor of the Church of England. It follows that all ministers and officials are the monarch’s servants. They serve allegiance to the crown. The monarch is also expected to be political neutral and should not be seen in making political decisions. He acts only on the advice of the political minister. He can’t make laws, impost taxes, spend public money or act unilaterally. In this sense contemporary Br is government by the name of her majesty’s government in the name of Queen. The monarch still has some important executives and duties: 1. gives the royal signature to the bills, 2. appoints government ministers and other public figures, 3. grads honors’, 4. hold audience with the prime minister, 5. convinces meetings at the prime minister, 6. gives punishments to convicted criminals, 7. fulfils international duties as head of the state. Most of these functions are performed by the prime minister. He is the leader of the political party which has a majority in the House of Commons. If there’s no clear majority the monarch can make a free choice. The monarch has a right to be informed or advised on of all aspects of national life by receiving the documents and meeting with the prime minister. The monarch’s private expenses come from the Private Purse (finance which is gathered from the income of the Royal estate). Any other costs must come from the crown’s own resources. Arguments against the monarchy: out of date, non democratic, too expensive, exclusive, too closely associated with aristocratic privilege. Arguments in favor of the monarchy: developed and adopted to modern requirements, serves as a symbol of personification of the state, demonstrates stability and continuity, has a higher prestige than politicians, isn’t a subject to political manipulation, posses neutrality with which people feel secure, performs an important ambassadorial in Br, reflects family values.

The UK and its constituting parts:

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – full name. A country and severe state. It lies between north Atlantic ocean and the north Atlantic see and comes within 35km of the north-west coast of France from which it is separated by the English Channel. The Northern Ireland shares 360km international land boarder with the republic of Ireland. The UK has a total area of approximately 245.000km2, population is about 60.209500. The climate of the UK various, it’s warmer in the south and dryer due to the Gulf Stream. The prevailing winds are southwesterly from the north Atlantic Current. More than 50% of the days are overcast. There are few natural hazards, although they can be strong winds, especially in winter. The UK is apolitical union made up of 4 constitutional countries: England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Gibraltar and Falkland belong to the UK. It has relationship with the Isle of Man and Channel Islands. These islands are part of the Br islands, but are not part of the UK. As a constitutional monarchy the UK has close relationship with 50 other common rare which share the same monarch. England is largest and populist of the UK. London - the capital. Area – 130.359km2, the population is over 50.1 mln people. It accounts for more than 83% of all population. It occupies more than 2/3 in south of the Ireland of Great Br and shares land boarders with Scotland – north, Wales – west. It’s bordered by the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean, English Channel; the Channel Tunnel near the Folkston directly links England to the European England. England is named of the Anglos who settled in England in the 5-6th century, or the origin of its Latten name “Anglonia”. England is divided into levels, levels into Parishes. They are prohibited from existing in Great London. Now England is also divided into 9 regions, which don’t have an elected authority and exist to coordinate certain local government functions which has representative authority, it has a directly elected mayor. It has 32 London boroughs.

English landscape

It consists of rowing hills and it is more minuteness in the north with the chain of mountains the Apennines dividing east and west. There is also a flat low lying marchland in the east. It is drained for agriculture. London is the largest city of England. Manchester and Birmingham is in the second place. A number of other cities in the center of England: Leads, Liverpool, New Easter, Sheffield, Bristol. England has a temperate climate. The seasons are quite variable in temperature. The temperature rarely falls above minus. The prevailing wind is from the south west and it brings mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. England is driest in the east and warmest in the south which is closest to the European mainland. Snowfall is not that common.

England’s inhabitants (~9%) are not white in origin. The country’s population is declining at the age of 16 and arising one of the age over 66. England is one of the most densely populated country in the Europe, 2nd only to the Netherlands. A substation proportion of the present day population form groups that were populated in Ireland in pre-history. The England’s ethnic view is that it’s mixed one with large influence from various waves Celtic, Roman, Norman, Anglo Saxon invasions. The general prosperity of England made it a destination for economic. England has produced a wealth of significant literary: W. Shakespeare, D. Dafoe, J. Ostin, Ch. Dickens, V. Woolf. A. Christy, J. R. R. Tolkien, E. Blyton, J. K. Rowling have been the best selling novelists of the last century. Among the poets: G. Chancer, Lord Byron, J. Keats, J. Milton remain read and studied among the world. A revival of English music status: G. Holst, B. Britten. In popular music such as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Queen, the Pink Floyd have all been the best selling Europe bands of all times. England is also a birth place of many movements such as pink, acid, house. London is internationally important for theater. England also has a small filming history, wile the BBC is well regarded in TV production. Significant figures in England art: W. Blake, J. M. Turner, J. Constable in 18-19th centuries. Sport is very popular in England: badminton, cricket, tennis, football (remains the country’s most popular sport in England). 2 traditional symbols of England are Saint Georges cross (flag) and the three lions. The rose is the national flower of England.


It’s a nation in North West Europe. It occupies 1/3 of the Island of Great Br. Has a land boarder to the south with England. It’s banned by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, North Channel in the north and the Irish Sea to the south-west. Capital: Edinburgh, the largest city: Glasgow (one of Europe’s largest financial centers. It has about 40% of Scotland’s population.) Scotland contains the largest reserves of oil in the EU. The kingdom of Scotland was independent until 1707, 1 May when the acts of union resulted in apolitical union created a kingdom of Britain. Scotland continues to have a separate legal and traditional system from the rest of UK. It constitutes a jurisdiction in public and private international laws. Scotland’s law system, educational system and the Church of Scotland are the three corner stones continuing of Scotland’s culture and national identity until the union. Scotland isn’t a sovereign state and isn’t joined a membership of UN and EU. The word Scott was borrowed from Latin and it’s used to the first half of the 10th century. Scotts appeared in Anglo Saxon first time as a reference to the land of the Gaels. Scotland as one of the constitute countries; the head of state is Queen Elisabeth 2nd. Constitutionally the UK is a unitary state with one government, home rule, but under the system of the devolution adopted after Scotland and Wales were given limited self- government. The British parliament in Westminster retires the ability to change, broad, abolish to the system. The UK parliament retires active power over Scottish taxes, social security system, military, broadcasting. The Scottish parliament has register authority to all other areas related to Scotland and it has limited power to vary income taxes. Scotland is represented in the House of Common by 50MP’s elected from the territory. The Scotland’s office is responsible for reserved matters. Scott’s law is the law of Scotland and the unique system of the ancient rules and combines both: unmodified civil law and common law. Politically there are 35 lieutenancy areas from which Queen acquires a Lord Lieutenant to represent her. For local government there are 32 council areas which was a top in 1996.This was administered by 32 unitary authorities responsible for the provision of all local government services: education, social work, environment, roads service. Some of the larger councils are subdivided into area committees. For administrating justice there are 6 sheriff domes. For the Scott parliament there are 8 regions which are subdivided into 73 constituencies for the Scottish parliament. For the UK parliament there are 59 constituencies. Geography: the mainland can be divided into 3 areas: 1. the highland in the north, 2. the central Belt, 3. the southern upland (in south). The highlands are minuteness with the highest point of Great Gland. The highest mountains in the Br Isles are found in Scotland including Ben Nevis 1.344m. All mountains are over 3000 ft and are known as the Morrows 314m. The central Belt of Scotland is generally flat. It is divided into the west coast, contains the area among Glasgow, and the east coast, and includes the areas of Edinburgh. The southern uplands are arranged of hills and mountains almost 200km long. Scotland has 790 islands: Shetland, Fortney, Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. Climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic and tends to be very changeable. It’s warmed by the Gulf Stream by the Atlantic Ocean. Temperature is lower than in the UK. West of Scotland is warmer tan in the east due to the influence of Atlantic Ocean. Rainfall varies in Scotland. The Scottish economy is closely linked to the rest of Europe. After the Industrial Revolution Scotland concentrated on ship building, steam industries. Later on it declined and economy was based on technology and service sector. The discovery of he North Sea oil in the 17th century also changed the economy. Edinburgh is the 6th largest financial center in Europe and the center of Scotland. Ship building still forms a large part in manufacturing. Other important industries: fishing, textile production, chemicals, decstiling, tourism, sheep farming is important in highland regions. The largest export products for Scotland are these products: whiskey, electronics, and financial services. The largest markets are USA, Germany, and Netherland.

The flag – St Georges cross. It also forms the part of Union Jack. The banner of Scotland – rum, punks. The national flower – the fissile The national skirts are called kilts (man wears). Folk music festivals. Lord Byron wrote in a distinctly English (Scottish). Scotland is the home of golf. National sport is football.


It’s one of the continual countries of the UK. It boarders by England to the east and by the Sea in all other 3 directs. Together Wales has 1200km of coast line. There are separated islands: the largest island is Anglesey in the north of west. The English name for Wales originates from the Latin name Walha – means stronger, foreigner. The welsh name their country Cymru, it means country man in old welsh. The population is 2.9mln people. The capital and the largest city is Cardiff. The head of states in Wales is the British monarch. Executive power is derived by the Queen and exercised by the parliament of the UK and some powers are devolved to National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff. It’s not a sovereign authority. The UK parliament can overrule or abolish it at any time. In the Br. House of Commons Wales is represented by 40MP’s in the Welsh constituency. The secretariat of Wales sits in the UK cabinet and is responsible for the representation of Wales’s issues. In 1535 England legally annexed Wales in the name of Henry VIII. In 1746 Wales and Benwitch act – all laws applied to England will automatically apply to Wales. This act was rebelled in 1967. The courts system is headed by the House of Lords. There are 5 cities in Wales: Bangor, Cardiff, Newport, St. David’s, and Swansea. The main population and industry areas are in south Wales: Cardiff, Newport, Swansea and their surrounding areas. Landscape – the biggest part is mainland particularly in the south. The highest mountains are in Snowdonia. The highest peak – Snowdon(1085m). Welsh mountains over 3000 ft high are known as Welsh 3000s. The political division: Wales is divided into 22 council areas. These are unitary authorities responsible for the provision responsible for: education, social work, environment, rood service. Below council are community councils which are informal information responsible for representing smaller groups.

The country is divided into 8 areas for which Queen appoints Lord Lieutenant to represent her. Industry: rise animals, silver, iron, gold, pure quality soil (since the 19th century). The landscape attracts many tourists and they act an important role in Wales’s economy. Important activity- light engineering. Wales is official bilingual – there are two official languages, English and Welsh. English is spoken by almost all people in Wales. 20.5% of the pop. are able to speak Welsh and a large proportion has at least some knowledge of it. These two languages are treated equally. Public bodies are required to prepare documents in both languages. Even teachers at school must write letters to parents in two languages. Culture. The principal festival of music and poetry is known as the National Eisteddfod. It takes places in different towns or cities (every year). Wales is referred to as the land of songs. It’s particularly famous for harpists’ music, male voice choirs, and solo concerts. The pop. sport is rugby(the part of national identity) and football. The flag of Wales – Ddraig Goch (the red dragon). This flag became very popular because the Br. Union Jack has no Wales representation. All the national symbols – The leak, the daffodil.

Northern Ireland is one of the four constituent countries of the UK. It is situated on the north-east of the island of Ireland in the province of Ulster, and consists of 6 counties. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK with an external land border with the Republic of Ireland. It was created by the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, and has had its own form of devolved government in a similar manner to Scotland and Wales. The only “official” flag of Northern Ireland is the Union Flag. The Northern Ireland Flag (also known as the ‘Ulster Banner’ or ‘Red Hand Flag’) is no longer used officially by government, due to the abolition of the Parliament of Northern Ireland in 1973. The Ulster Banner, however, still remains the main de facto flag used to uniquely represent Northern Ireland. The Ulster Banner is based on the flag of Ulster. Landscape. Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down. There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains (an extension of the Caledonian fold mountains) with extensive gold deposits. Slieve Donard in the Mournes reaches 848 m (2782 feet), Northern Ireland’s highest point. Climate. The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate, rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region. The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America. The damp climate and extensive deforestation in the 16th and 17th centuries resulted in much of the region being covered in rich green grassland. There are 5 settlements with city status in Northern Ireland: Belfast, Derry, Newry, Armagh, Lisburn. Economy. The Northern Ireland economy is the smallest of the four economies making up the UK. Northern Ireland traditionally had an industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles, but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services. Tourism also plays a big role in the local economy. Language. The Mid Ulster dialect of English spoken in Northern Ireland shows influence from both the West Midlands and Scotland, thereby giving it a distinct accent compared to Hiberno-English. Some jocularly call this dialect phonetically by the name Norn Iron. In Northern Ireland, ethnicity, family, politics and religion are all inter-related. NI is a polarized society. On one side of the divide are people whose ancestors came from lowland Scotland or England. They are self-consciously protestant and want NI to remain in the UK. On the other side are people whose ancestors were native Irish. They are self-consciously Catholic and would like NI to become part of the Irish Republic.

Education in GB

A dual system. All children in Great Britain between the ages of 5 and 16 are required by law to attend school. About 93% go to schools supported by public funds, so that for them education is free. A minority are educated at independent schools, where fees have to be paid. State Schools. The primary school has two phases: infants (age 5 to 7) and juniors (7-11). The traditional structure of the secondary level contained on the one hand the more academic grammar schools, preparing pupils for entry to higher education, the schools for the less academically able being called, following World War II, secondary modern (sometimes technical) schools. Under the influence of the Labour Government after the war, many of these schools were combined as comprehensive schools, attended by all pupils from 11 to 16. These tended to be very large, consisting of a amalgamation of several previously separate institutions. Pupils of the same age-group were placed in parallel streams of differing academic standards, and sets for various objectives. Private schools in general – with exception at the lower end of the quality scale – offer better facilities than state schools, such as smaller classes or better equipped science departments, which tend to lead to better school-leaving exam results. However, emphasis is placed at public schools not only on academic achievement, but also on games, including sportsmanship, discipline, character formation, and training for leadership. Even today there is a tendency for students at the prestigious universities Oxford and Cambridge to come mainly from private (public) schools, not because the applicants from state schools are rejected on class grounds, but because the latter often do not think of applying when well qualified. The Examination System. Over the past decades, there have been a series of reforms of general school-leaving exams at lower secondary level. The GCE (General Certificate of Education) at Ordinary or 0 level, taken at around age 16, first augmented by the CSE (Certificate of Secondary Education), then both replaced in 1986 by the GSCE (General Certificate of Secondary Education). One feature of this was the emphasis on continuous assessment of pupils’ performance in school prior to the exam, counted together with the exam results. Institutions of Higher Education. Britain today has 88 universities (including 39 former polytechnics). In addition to these there is a wide range of colleges with specialisms in art, business studies, teacher training, technical and vocational training, and general subjects, with a wide variety of levels and students of all ages from 16 onwards.

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