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lexicology

1. The morpheme. The word vs morpheme. All words consist of morphemes. The morpheme is a smallest meaningful indivisible two-facet language unit. (eg. il|logic|al - 3 morphemes) Two-facet - has form and content (meaning). Form is graphical representation, content is meaning of the word.
Morphemes are classified according to different criteria:
1according to the role morphemes play in constructing word.
2 types of morphemes: root morphemes and affixal morphemes.
A root m. is a lexical nucleus of the word with a very general and abstract lexical meaning. It makes the semantic centre of the word. However, it doesn’t have part of speech meaning. (eg. clear|ly)
Affixal m. build new words and word forms. Affixal morphemes have lexical meaning.
(eg.- ful in beautiful - full of something; spoonful, mouthful - amount of something)
Affical m. have also part of speech meaning. (eg. -ful - adjective; employee - noun)
All affixal m. depending on their function and meaning are divided into 2 groups:
a. functional/inflectional - deal with grammar and they produce word forms and it means they produce members of paradigm (the group of words with different grammatical forms: the plural, the 3rd person singular, comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs, genitive case of sng. and pl. forms of nouns, Participle 1, Participle 2 and past tense (ed)).
b.derivational affixes - are used to build new words, eg. use|less. All derivational affixes depending on their position in a word are divided into 2 groups:
1.Prefix - a m. which precedes the root m. and posses lexical meaning. (eg. ex-wife; disloyal; re-write).
2.Suffix - a m. standing after the root. It has a very general lexical meaning and a part of speech meaning. (eg. magic|al - adj. having quality of magic; engage|ment - noun, state)
1)according to homonymy of morphemes with the word.
2)types: free and bound morphemes.
Free morphemes are homonymous with the words. They can stand alone in a sentence. Free morphemes can be only root morphemes. (eg. care|ful - “care” free, homonymous with “care”; ful - not free as cant stant alone in a sentence)
Bound m. can not stand alone in a sentence. Usually these are prefixes and suffixes, eg. mal|treat|ment; arog|ance.
1)According to their origin.
Native m. are those which have always existed in the English language, eg. ful, less, y, ly, dom, ness, ship.
Borrowed m. were taken from other languages. They can be Greek, Latin origin, eg. able(lat), ant, ism, ist (greek), il, im, in (romans).
Morphemes can vary according to their position and environment in which they occur.
A positional variant of morpheme which is identical in meaning and origin but occurs in different environment is called allomorph. Allomorphs have different forms depending on initial and final phoneme of the base.
Eg. il, im, in, ir - meaning “not”, origin is the same, but they are found in different words.
Suffixes can also have 1) adjective building allomorphs: able\ible(changeable, reducible); and/ent (tolerant, dependent). 2) noun forming allomorphs ition/ation/cation/ion/sion ; ance/ence (competence, performance), ancy/ency (expectancy, tendency).
Roots can also be allomorphic: eg. duke - duchess; please - pleasant; wise - wisdom.
Pseudomorphemes - are combinations of sounds which remind or coincide real morphemes, eg. reduce (ps.) - re-write.
Differences between word and morpheme:
1.the word can stand alone in a sentence. Morpheme can not stand alone. It occurs as only as a part of the word.
2.words are positionally mobile, they can change their place in a sentence. Eg. She went out. / Out she went. Morphemes are not positionally mobile, they can not change their place in a sentence. Eg. Sing|er|s - we cant change ersings.
3.Words are capable of grammatical employment. They are used to make up sentences. While morphemes can not make sentences.
4.Words are divisible into smaller meaningful units, eg. book|let. But morphemes are not further divisible into meaningful units.
2. Morphemic analysis of word.
The aim of morphemic analysis is to single out all the morphemes which make up a word. The result of morphemic analysis is ultimate constituents (UC’s). Eg. star|dom - 2UC’s
UC’s are morphemes which are not further divisible into meaningful units. The number of UC’s differs from word to word. The word can consist from 1 to 4 UC’s.
The morphemic analysis can be carried out on 2 principles, namely, the root principle and the affix principle.
The morphemic analysis on the root principle is carried out in the following way: a word family is taken and the morpheme common to all the words is the root. Eg. usage, useful, useless, usefully.
The affix principle is based on the identification of the affix in a word family. Eg. responsible, reversible, destructible, perceptible; stardom, boredom, freedom, princedom.
3. Derivational analysis of word.
It deals with the process of word building while the morphemic analysis deals with morphemic structure of the words.
The aim of derivational analysis is to identify the derivational pattern of the word. Derivational pattern is a regular structural semantic formula on which new words are built.
Eg. Vbase + ment = N
The pattern indicates:
1. Nucleus (base) with its lexico-grammatical properties
2. Derivational affix
3. The arrangement of parts
4. The result

Eg. Nb + y = Adj.
1 2 4
3
The base in the pattern is the part of the word which remains when affixes have been removed. In other words it remains unchanged.
Methods of derivational analysis:
Correlate - to have a close relationship/connection of causes and effect. Eg. teach and teacher, because teacher is the one who teaches.
Opposition - a semantic relationship of partial difference between 2 partially similar words. Eg. work and worker - they are partially opposed and similar.
Correlation - a set of binary (consisting of 2 things) oppositions. Vb + er = N, eg. work - worker; teach - teacher; buy - buyer.
The method of derivational analysis is called the analysis to immediate constituents (IC’s).
The analysis is carried out with the help of correlations which are made up of a number of binary oppositions.
Rules that should be obeyed while building structural correlation.
1.All the motivated members of the binary oppositions should belong to the same part of speech.
2.All the motivating members should also refer to the same part of speech.
3.The semantic relationship between words in binary opposition should be identical in the whole correlation. To identify it a semantic check is used. Eg. teacher is the one who teaches.
Manly - man; womanly - woman; monthly - month; Nb + ly = Adj.
Quickly - quick; sadly - sad; Adj. + ly = Adv.
4. Affixation. Derivational valency and patterns. Derivational affixes, their classification; semiaffixes.
Affixation is forming words by adding suffixes or prefixes to the base. A base or derivational stem is a part of the word which remains unchanged through the paradigm: logic, logical, illogical, illogically - paradigm in which a base is “logic”.
The result of affixation is a derivative. Derivative is coined in affixal pattern. In the pattern the base is the nucleus.
Valency of the base is the ability of the base to take derivational affixes. Valency depend on the following factors:
1) Morphological properties of the base.
1.1 A noun base is characterized of the highest valency. Noun base combines mostly with suffixes. Noun base forms N with the help of following suffixes: hood, dom, age, ing, ism, let, ship.
We can also build adj. with the help of following suffixes: ary, ed, ful, ic, ish, ous, y, some.
We can also build V: ify, ize, en.
1.2 Verbal basis are used to form:
a) nouns: age, al, ance, ant, ee, er, ment.
b) adjectives: able, (t)ive, tant
Verbal basis can also take prefixes: un, re, de, dis, out, over, under.
1.3. Adjectival basis used to form:
a)nouns: dom, ism, ity, ness.
b) adjectives: ish
c) verbs: en, ate, ify, ize
Prefixes: un (unknown), dis, pro, anti, im.
1.4. Adverbial basis do not build new words. They are derivationally passive. Unhappi|ly (unhappi - base). They do not take affixes or prefixes.
2) Derivational structure of the base influences the valency of the word.
2.1 Derivationally simple basis have the highest valency.
2.2 Suffixal basis are characterized as having lower degree of valency, also as prefixal basis.
There are distinguished 3 degrees of derivational basis. If the base take one affix it is first degree of derivation, second degree - base + 2 affixes, third degree - base + 3 affixes. Eg. perturb, perturbable, imperturbable, imperturbableness.
Basis of the third degree of derivation are derivationally passive.
3)Semantic properties of the base is the third factor which determines the valency of the base. Basis of polysemantic words usually have higher derivational valency.
Affixes
Suffixes are derivational affixes which have part of speech meaning and general lexical meaning. Suffixes are classified by different criteria:
1) Morphological criterion:
1.1 noun forming
1.2 adjective forming
1.3 verb forming
1.4 adverb forming
1.5 pronoun forming
2) Semantic criterion:
2.1 suffixes with denotational component of meaning
2.2 suffixes with connotational component
2.3 suffixes with several meanings (polysemantic) eg. y - like smth (sugary), full of smth (sandy)
3) According to productivity:
3.1 productive suffixes. Productivity is measured by the number of words built with the help of the suffix. If there are a lot of derivatives, suffix is productive.
3.2 non-productive suffixes. Not very many words made with it.
4) According to activity:
4.1 active. If it is active it is used to build new words in modern English (ness, ity, less, ful)
4.2 passive.
5) According to the origin - native and borrowed.
Prefixes
1) According to semantic criterion:
1.1 prefix with negative meaning
1.2 prefix with reverse meaning
1.3 prefix with meaning badly (mis, mal)
1.4 prefix with meaning repetition (re)
1.5 prefix denoting degree (over, under)
1.6 prefix with meaning time and order (pre, post)
2) According to productivity - productive (un, re), and non-productive
3) Active and passive
4) According to origin - native (un, over, mis) and borrowed (pre, post, anti).
Semi-affixes are components standing between a stem and an affix. E.g. -man - postman, sportsman, gentleman; -proof - waterproof, bulletproof.
5. Composition; criteria and classification of compounds. Base + Base.
Composition is a process of word building by joining 2 bases together: base + base;
tooth + brush = toothbrush
The result of composition is a compound word. Compounds are characterized by:
1) One word or hyphenated spelling, e.g. sky-blue
2) One stress
3) Semantic integrity (unity)
4) Unity of morphological and syntactic function
According to different ways of composition all the compounds are divided into 2 groups:
1) Compounds proper (base+base)
2) Compound derivatives (base + base + affix)
Compounds proper are different from 2nd as far as 2nd is built not only from 2 basis but simultaneously the suffix is added. Eg. longlived = long + live + d
Compounds proper are built by joining together the basis of the words which are already available in the language. Both bases are free and can function in the sentence independently. Eg. headline, headstone, toothbrush.
The part of speech of a compound proper is determined by the part of speech of the second base. Eg. Sky-blue (adj) - whole word as an adjective.
The classification can be based on several criteria:
1) According to parts of speech. Comp N, Comp Adj., Comp Adv., Comp Prepositions, Comp Numbers, Comp Pronouns and Comp V.
2) According to the type of composition
a) Compounds formed without linking elements just juxtaposition (sugretinimas). This type prevails among English compounds. E.g. environment-friendly.
b) Compounds with a linking vowel or consonant. E.g. speedometer.
c) Compounds built with prepositions/conjunctions. E.g. son-in-law.
d) Compounds containing several free roots which are the results of lexicalization of syntactic unit. E.g. Mary-go-round.
3) According to derivational structure:
a) Compounds of 2 simple basis, e.g. blackboard, bedroom.
b) Compounds in which one part is derived, e.g. schoolteacher
c) One component is shortened base, e.g. prepschool, ad-music.
d) One base is abbreviated, e.g. H-bomb
e) One of the basis is a compound base, e.g. wastepaper|bin.
4) According to semantic criterion.
a) Motivated compounds are compounds the meaning of which can be understood from the meaning of basis. E.g. sunbeam, toothbrush.
b) Non-motivated compounds are words the meaning of which can not be understood from the meaning of the basis. E.g. wall-flower, sweetheart.
5) Distributional criterion:
a) In compounds bases are arranged in the same order as words in free word combinations. These compounds are called syntactic, e.g. a bluebell, know-all.
b) A syntactic compounds are words in which basis are not placed in the order as words are in a free word combination, e.g. snow-white, knee-high.
6) According to the structural semantic relations between basis.
a) Exocentric/coordinative compounds are those in which neither of 2 basis is the structural or semantic centre. Eg. actor-manager. In this group we distinguish subgroups:
I. Additive. They denote a person or an object that are 2 things at a time. Eg. queen-bee,
II. Reduplicative. They contain 2 identical stems/basis. Eg. woody-woody.
III. Compounds of twin forms differing only in a viwel, eg. tip-top, willy-nilly.
b) Endocentric compounds/subordinative. These bases are not semantically equal. The second base is semantic centre of the word. It takes plural and possessive case and refers the word to some port of speech. The first element restricts the meaning of the second. Eg. sea-shore, plum-tree.
6. Compound derivatives, patterns and criteria.
They are built by 2 simultaneous processes - composition and affixation. The pattern is a free word combination and suffix: lefthander - left + hand +er.
In the process of building a CD the elements of word combination loose their grammatical independence and become a base to which a suffix is added.
The following most productive patterns of CD are distinguished:
1) a phrase + ed (adj. + N + ed) a kind heart = kindhearted.
2) a phrase + ish (adj. + N + ish) an old made = oldmadish
3) a phrase + er , to go to the theatre = a theatre-goer
4) a phrase + adjectivization, to reach far = far-reaching
5) a set expression + adjectivization, to go easy = easy-going
6) phrasal verb + adjectivization, to go on = ongoing
7) a phrase + conversion to N, to make up = a make-up
The following criteria are applied to identify the derivational structure of words, consisting of 2 root morphemes and a suffix.
I. If the 2nd element ending in a suffix is homonymous with a word, it is a compound proper, eg. cup-winner.
II. To distinguish a CD from a D, the motivation of the word should be taken into account. If the word is motivated by a free-word combination or a set expression it is a compound derivative (CD). Eg. churchgoer (to go to church). If the word is motivated by 2 root base + suffix + it is a D. eg. weekender.
7. Conversion.
Conversion is a non-affixal way of word building which results in a pair of semantically related words belonging to different parts of speech and have different distribution, eg. water - to water.
There are 2 approaches in conversion - synchronic and diachronic. Diachronic approach deals with the historical development of the words. And synchronic approach deals with the current state of language. Synchronic approach studies:
1) Productive patterns of conversion
English words are built according to 3 patterns of conversion:
1) noun based to verb, eg. hand - to hand , desubstantival verbs are built
2) verb base to noun, eg. to walk - a walk, deverbal nouns are built.
These two are productive patterns since they are simple, no affixes are added, no rules of combination should be observed.
3) adjective base to verb, eg. clean - to clean
this third pattern produces deadjectival verbs. This pattern is not productive, because the syntactic pattern is more productive. We get verbs with the help of following words - to become, to get, to turn, to grop.
Homonyms are coined in regular patterns and they are called “patterned homonyms” (hand - to hand). Unlike other homonyms of language, they are semantically related. E.g.
Match - a match - not related
Hand - to hand - related.
2) Properties of the words making up a conversion pair
Words built by conversion are characterized by the following features:
1) They are homonymous (identical phonetical form)
2) They are semantically related. One member of a conversion pair is motivating word and the other is motivated. And they belong to different parts of speech.
3) Their paradigms are different: e.g. a box, boxes - to box, boxed, boxing.
4) They have syntactic properties - their syntactic functions in a sentence are different. E.g. N - S, Obj, Adj - P.
3) Semantic relations in a conversion pair
Criteria applied to identify motivating and motivated member of a conversion pair. The basic criteria are:
1.Regular semantic relations
Nb -> V. In this pattern there are 5 types of regular semantic relations.
1.The motivating nouns denote human beings, animals and collective nouns. E.g. a mother - to mother. The motivated verbs denoted actions, characteristics of these nouns.
2.Motivating noun denotes parts of human body, instruments or other objects. Motivated verb denotes action performed with that instrument. E.g. a hand - to hand, a hammer - to hammer.
3.Motivating noun denotes parts of plants or living beings. Motivated verb denotes an action with the following meaning: to produce, to supply, to cover. These relations are called acquisition or addition. E.g. a root - to root.
4.Motivating noun denotes concrete objects. Motivated verb expresses an action of removing, cutting of. This type is called deprivation. E.g. a bone - to bone.
5.Motivating noun denotes a place or a container. Motivated verb means to put sth into that container or place. E.g. A room - to room.
Vb -> N. Regular semantic relations.
1.Motivating verb in all cases mean some process. Motivated noun denotes an instance or a single act. E.g. To jump - a jump.
2.Motivated noun denotes a result of the action. E.g. to cut - a cut.
3.Motivated noun denotes a place of the action. E.g. to leak - a leak.
4.Motivated noun denotes an agent, This noun is derogatory. E.g. to bore - a bore.
There are no regular semantic relations within the third pattern.
2.Semantic inclusion
It was introduced by H. Marchard, It states that the meaning of a motivating word is included into the meaning of a motivated word. It means that the meaning of the derived word depends in the first word. E.g. a wolf - to wolf.
3.Frequency of usage
If one word has a greater degree of frequency, this word is simple or motivating. If it has smaller degree it is motivated or derived. Eg. an orange - to orange.
4.Derivational criteria
This criterion is efficient in the case of rich word families. We take the word family and we have to seee whether words are built from nouns or from verbs. Eg. rootless, unroot, rooted - derived from the noun root.
5.The criterion of synonymity.
It can be applied only to deverbal nouns. It is based on the analogy of a conversion pair and another pair of the words which are synonyms. Eg. to talk - to converse, a talk - conversation. Synonyms.
4.criteria which help to identify motivating and a motivated member of a conversion pair.
8. Adjectivization.
It is a non-affixal way of word building. It is a way of building adjectives from P1 and P2. The result of adjectivization is a pair of homonyms. However, differently from any other way of word building the motivating word is not a citation form (the initial form from which other words are built) but a participle.
Patterns of Adjectivization: P1->Adj; P2 ->Adj. They are productive, active and frequent, which is determined by the simplicity of these patterns.
Motivating members P1 -> Adj, P2 -> Adj, are mainly transitive, derivationally simple, polysemanatic P of Roman origin. The verbal adj. (motivated words) homonymous with participles are mostly monosemantic.
Criteria applied to distinguish between P1, P2 and Adj. :
1) Morphological. The adj. homonymous with P1, P2 hasa paradigm of its own. Whereas P1, P2 are the members of the verbal paradigm. Eg. astonished, more astonished, the most astonished. (own paradigm), He is astonished ( a member of verbal paradigm).
2) Syntactic.
a) Deverbal adj. ending in -ing and -ed are used as predicatives to the verbs of becoming (to become, to get, to grow, to turn) and the V of being (to seem, to look, to feel, to sound, except the verb to be).E.g. Seem displeased, become irritated.
b) Participial adj. are used as homonymous attr. And P with simple or suffixal adj. to which they are joined by conjunctions. E.g. The water was clear and sparkling.
c) Participial adj. collocate with such intensifiers as “very, most, rather, quite, too, so”. E.g. She is very restrained.
3) Semantic.
a) Deverbal adj. coined by adjectivization stand in semantic relations with simple and suffixal adj. by altering their synonymic sets. E.g. Fitting - suitable, appropriate, proper.
b) Participial adj. and motivating verbs have asymmetric semantic structure. It means that motivating verbs have more developed semantic structure, they have more meanings.
4) Derivational. Participial adj. serves as basis for building other words with prefixes and suffixes.
Adj. ing/ed + ly = adverb, e.g. shocking + ly = shockingly
Adj. ing/ed + ness = N , e.g. prepared + ness = preparedness
Adj. ing/ed -> N, e.g. accused -> the accused
Un + Adj. ing/ed -> adj. (negative), e.g. un+ affected = unaffected.

If 2 or more criteria can be applied at a time, we are more certain that the word ending in ed- or ing is derived adj.
9. Substantivization.
N-> Adj. without affixes
It is a process of forming noun from adj. basis without adding derivational affixes.
Adj.b -> Noun, e.g. rich -> the rich.
Types of substantivization:
1) Complete/full s. If the adj. is completely substantivized, it acquires the following features:
a) It has a paradigm of the Noun. Adj. private -> a private’s, privates.
b) Substantivized adj. takes the indefinite, definite or 0 article. E.g. a native, the native, natives.
2) Partial s. If the adj. is partially substantivized it has only one form. It takes the definite article and agrees with the verb in the plural. E.g. The rich are richer than the poor.
Moreover they preserve some adjectival properties - they can be modified by adv. of degree, e.g. the very poor.
Partially substantivized units belong to the following two lexico-grammatical groups:
1.Nouns denoting abstract notions, e.g. the evil, the rich. The abstract noun agrees with the verb in the singular.
2.Collective N. Eg. the English, the rich. They agree with V in the plural.
Substantivization diachronically is the result of an ellipsis of an attributive phrase. Eg. a private - a private soldier.
10. Shortening of words.
Shortenings are words produced either by means of clipping a full words or by shortening word combinations, which retains the meaning of combination.
Clipping - taking away part of the word. Polysyballic words are shortened in a more or less 3 ways. The new form of the word retains the semantic and syntactic functions of the original. Eg. telephone - phone.
Ways of clipping:
1) back/final clipping. Final part of the word is taken away. Eg. laboratory - lab.
2) Innitial clipping. The beginning part of the word is clipped. Eg. aeroplane - plane.
3) Mixed clipping. The beginning and the final part of the word are clipped. The middle of the word is retained. Eg. refrigerator - fridge.
4) Medial clipping. Middle part is clipped. Eg. mathematics - maths.
Clipped words belong to the same part of speech they derived form. They retain the same meaning, but usually stylistically they differ, because shortened counterparts are usually informal words and sometimes indicate familiarity.
Clipped word combinations. When we clip them, the result is abbreviation. Abbreviations are combined of the initial letters of all the words of the word group. There every single letter is pronounced according to the spelling conventions. Eg. value added tax - VAT.
Abbr. which are read as regular words are called acronyms, eg. UNESCO.
Reduplication. It involves reiteration of the whole base element or just a part of it. Accordingly there are distinguished 2 types of reduplicatives.
1.Complete reduplication. Identical elements are repeated. Eg. gee-gee - horse for a child, tick-tick - clock.
2.Partial. Second element slightly changed. Eg. ding dong.
The result of it is a reduplicative compound.
Back-formation. It is the building of a new word by the deletion of a suffix or a supposed suffix from complex words or from simple words. Eg. an editor - to edit. Back formation words are more simple words than the words they are coined from.
Blending. It is a process of word building when fragments of 2 words are puttogether. Usually the initial part of one and final part of another, make a new word. Eg. motel - moto + hotel.
11. The theory of word meaning. Types of word meaning.
Semasiology is a science about the meaning of the word. H. Breal was the founder of this science. He started the analysis of word meaning.
F. de Saussure began to postulate that a word is a two-facet unit. It has a form and a meaning. He developed his theory about the word, but he first started talking about the dichotomy of the language - language and speech. Two sides of the word are arbitrary. The form doesn’t motivate the meaning. Form is chosen independently from the meaning. Any word is independent entity and form doesn’t explain the meaning.
Saussure did not pay attention to the reference, difference in species, etc.. This approach, when attention is paid only to form, only concept, duality is called immanent approach.
Triad of the word:
Concept
Referent (thing)
Sign(sound)
Concept names smth very general, and referent smth very concrete, that exists. Eg. A cat is an animal (conceptual), My cat is angry (referent). Without conceptual meaning you will not understand the referent.
Types of word meaning.
Grammatical meaning - the meaning of a word that depends on its role in a sentence; varies with inflectional form. Eg. Girls, tables, boys - the common element is the grammatical meaning of plurality.
Lexical meaning - the meaning of a word that depends on the nonlinguistic concepts it is used to express.
Lexical meaning is not homogenous and may be analyzed as including denotational and connotational components. Denotation is a direct, referential meaning. Connotative meaning denotes and object and gives some additional information about it, and attitude, personal expressivity. Connotations: expressive, emotional (inherit in their meaning w/o context), evaluative (negative or positive), stylistic, historical, personal.
12. Polysemy. Change of meaning.
Polysemantic words have many meanings and monosemantic - only one. Monosemantic words are such as (and, but), names of months (January), days (Tuesday). Monosemantic words are very few. The majority of notional words are polysemantic. Polysemy means that one sign has many meanings for many reasons when those meanings are recognized by society. The number of meanings depend on people who divide them. Meanings of the word are called lexical grammatical varieties.
Types of semanticchange.
I. Causes of semantic change: linguistic and extralinguistic.
Extralinguistic / non-linguistic causes. The life influences the change. Eg. Car - carsus (lot.). Mouse used also for computer, technical means. Old words acquire new meanings.
Linguistic causes. Language is a live organism.
Ellipsis - if you have a phrase, you may drop one word and the remaining word acquires the meaning of it. Eg final examinations - finals.
Differentiation of synonyms. Eg. My land and my country - 2 absolute synonyms. But the language can not have 2 absolute synonyms, so the meaning of the land started to change, while country remained with the same meaning.
II. Nature of the change of meaning.
Basically most of us see the world metaphorically or metonymically. Eg. A pillow of society - metaphorical view. 2 basical :
1.metaphorical change of meaning.
2.metonymical change of meaning (is based on association of a real life, realistic)
3. hyperbolical change - Eg. Im terribly sorry.
4. Litote - Eg. Can I trouble you for a moment?
III. The results of change of meaning.
Denotative component of meaning: narrowing (specialisation) and widening (generalisation).
Eg. A play - a game out doors (Old E.) denotative m. As a result of changes the wide m. of play started to narrow the meaning. Play - in the theatre, chess. The meaning was specialized or narrowed.
Widening - the word meand smth narrow. A thing - smth that was touchable, inanimate. Now the meaning is very wide.
Connotational component of meaning.
Eg. Villain - miestietis. In the mid. Ages the word acquired a negative meaning/ derogatory meaning. Today villain means nieksas.
But connotative meaning isn’t always derogative. Elevation of meaning - pagerinimas. Eg. Quene - bad, street girl. The word improved its meaning to queen.
13. Componential and contextual analyses.
Componential analysis - semantic analysis - when divide words not only into meanings but also semantic components. Worked with nouns.
Eg. Man (relates with) - woman - child (human)
Bull - cow - calf (animal)
Words are united by common semes, but they also have differences.
Eg. Man and woman (adult) - child (non adult)
Bull and cow (adult) - calf (non adult)
Contextual analysis. It is based on the assumption that difference in meaning of linguistic units is always indicated by a difference in environment. Words are observed in real texts not on the basis of dictionaries.
The context may be subdivided into lexical, syntactical and mixed.
Eg. Lexical meaning determines the meaning of ‘black; in the following examples: Black as a colour - black gloves. Black as a feeling or thought means sad - black thoughts.
A purely syntactical context is rare.
14. Synonymy.
Synonyms are words belonging to the same part of speech, having different morphemic structure and coincide /are interchangeable only in some contexts. Eg. Cool - chilly - nippy: interchangeable.
Not in all distributions a synonymic group remains synonymic. Eg. Army won a victory. To win a war. Gain a victory, but not gain a war.
One should be careful in what distributions words are used. Words have different valency. Not every word connects with another.
Synonyms consist of groups of words called semantic paradigm. Each member of the group has a synonymic dominant, which always has the most general meaning and express the most general concept. Eg. To glimpse, to glance, to stare, to look - syn. dominant.
They differ in semic structure. It is known by opposition in semic structure. Eg. Expectation - anticipation - hope. Common meaning (common denominator) is to expect smth. They are not identical, because to expect smth you may expect smth good or evil.
Classification of synonyms:
1) Ideographic synonyms. They differ in some shades of their meaning. Eg. Marriage, matrimony, wedding. It denotes the fact of marriage. But by the opposition in their semic structure, they differ. Marriage - in general, matrimony - more like a legal state, wedding - the ceremony. Ideographic synonyms are compared in their denotative/referential meaning.
2) Stylistic synonyms are used in different styles. Eg. Horse - stallion. Difference is connotative meaning. Eg. Begin - commence. One is neutral and commence is stylistically coloured, poetical word.
3) Distributional synonyms. Eg. We won a war - we gain a war.
4) Total/absolute synonyms. There are very few of them. Eg. Noun - substantive.
15. Antonymy.
Words belonging to the same part of speech but not interchangeable in the context because they express polar notion, difference, opposite meanings within the scope of the same notion.
They are not interchangeable in the context. But they are found in some patterns. Eg. A and B, day and night, do or die.
Antonyms are classified into groups:
1) Root antonyms. Eg. Black and white, day and night.
2) Gradable antonyms. Eg. Love and hate. (affection, indifferent, dislike in between of them).
3) Derivational antonyms. They are made of one another. Eg. Happy - unhappy.
16. Homonymy.
Words of the same pronunciation or spelling but different meaning.
Classification:
1) Homographs. Words which are spelled the same but pronounced differently. Eg. Tear - tear.
2) Homophones. Words spelled differently but pronounced the same. Eg. Red - read.
3) Homophones proper. Words spelled the same and pronounced the same, but the meaning is different. Eg. A seal - seal.
Lexico grammatical classification of homonyms:
1) Full lexical homonyms. They belong to the same part of speech and coincide in all their paradigm. Eg. Spring - spring. All forms coincide.
2) Partial lexical homonyms. In the paradigms of the wordsonly some forms coincide. Initialform coincide, other forms do not. Eg. To lie (guleti: lien, laid) - to lie (meluoti: lied)
3) Lexico grammatical homonyms. They belong to different parts of speech. Eg. Eye - I.
4) Partial grammatical homonyms. Belong to the same part of speech but coincide only in some of their forms. Eg. To find - found - found / to found - founded - founded.
There are very many homonyms. We understand it from context.
There are several ways how homonyms appeared in English:
1) Diachronical (historical). Languages developed and some forms coincide. Eg. A love - to love.
2) Borrowings from different languages. Eg. Ballum - ball (kamuolys) / ballet - ball (balius).
3) Split polysemy. Spring - revival of nature only, but after some time it gained more meanings.
17. Phraseology.
Phraseological unit (PU)
• they are ready made units
• characteristic of specialized meaning
• the sense of components does not correspond to the meaning of the whole.
• In a way they double the vocabulary
• You can not change the components of it only pronouns can be changed.
Factors of phrase forming:
1. Idiomaticity Eg. Out of the frying pan into the fire.
2. Using rhymed forms. Eg. My hear and dear.
3. Usage of archaic words.
4. The semantic feature of heritage.
Classification of PU.
Ch. Bally:
1.Idioms (the meaning is not clear) eg. To find a mare’s nest.
2.Figurative units. (we can understand the meaning). It is a semantic class based on motivation - when you can understand the meaning from the objects. Eg. He earns his bread and butter.
Vinogradov extended this classification. It was also based in motivation:
1.Idioms proper. There you can not know the meaning of a whole from the components. Eg. A white elephant. (expensive)
2.Phraseological unites. All metaphorical expressions. Eg. To be an apple of one’s eye (very important)
3.Phraseological combinations. They stand between real PU and free word groups (one word has a direct meaning and the other has a phraseological one. Eg. To pay a visit.
One component is as if free while the other is free and used directly.
To have +N, to take + N, to make + N, to do +N, They have a narrow combinability. One word combines one with one and the only word.
Kunin divided according to syntactical structural point of view.
1.Verbal phrases. Eg. To put all your eggs into one basket.
2.Nominal phrases.
3.Verbal phrase + subordinate clause. Eg. He disappeared before I managed to say Jack Robins.
PU may have special grammatical rules (or rather exceptions) that are allowed only in PU. Only the use of an article can change the whole meaning.
Amosova Smith distinguished 2 groups:
1. Idioms (components cannot be changed)
2. Phrasemes.
Transformation of PU.
1.Change of tenses. Eg. He has/had a bee in his body.
2.Change of numbers. Eg. A dark horse (unknown person), They are many dark horses.
3.Change of articles. Eg. To turn a new leaf / the new leaf.
4.Pronominal.
5.Lexical addition to PU. Eg. To keep the ball going - Poirot had the conversational ball going.
6.Deletions. PU is not said all, only part of it. Eg. Flesh and blood - he appeared in meeting flesh and blood - he appeared flesh.
There are changes in syntactical permutations and because of it syntactical shifts occur. Eg. Dead as a doornail.
Sometimes these PU are taken into real meaning. It is called decomposition.
18. Varieties of English
There are many Englishies in the world. The first and original source is British English (standard E).Local dialects are varieties of English language peculiar to some districts and having no normalized literary form. Regional varieties possessing a literary form are called variants. In Great Britain there are 2 variants: Scottish English and Irish English and five main groups of dialects: Nothern, Midland, Eastern, Western and Southern. Every group contains several dialects. Regional varieties are closely connected with borrowings. English took a lot of words from Latin (strata-street, butter, wine) and Scandinavia (to take, all words beginning sc-). The influence of French borrowings is also significant (French influence started from the 11cent.). We have all words denoting food, fashion, government that came from French. 70 percents of English words have Latin, French origin.
American English. There are three possibilities to denote AmE:
1.It is not a separate language as somebody thought because if it would be a separate lang. it would have its own vocabulary, but it hasn’t. It has only some words different. Its grammatical stock is also the same as BrE. Finally, its spelling is not absolutely different however the most observable difference lies in phonetics.
1.The question arises maybe it is a dialect? Dialect is a variation of language. The answer is no, because AmE has its own literary norm which has its own dialects.
2.We call AmE one of BrE variants.
AmE is not the only existing variant. Besides the Scottish and Irish variants there are also Australian English, Canadian E., and Indian E.
The term “lingua franca” should be mentioned here. It means language functioning on equal right used in official institutions. In India English functions as lingua franca; in Latin America Spanish and Portuguese function as L.F.
19. The etymological structure of the English vocabulary
To understand the nature of the English vocabulary and its historical development it is necessary to examine the etymology of its diff. layers, the historical causes of their appearance, their volume and role and the comparative importance of native and borrowed elements in filling English vocabulary.
1.The term native used to denote words of Anglo-Saxon origin brought at 5c by the Germanic tribes. The term is often applied to words whose origin cannot be traced at any other lang. New words have been coined from Anglo-Saxon roots mainly by means of affixation, word composition and conversion. The native element comprises not only the ancient Anglo-Saxon core but also words coined later by means of word formation, split of polysemy and other processes operative in English.
2. The term borrowing is used to denote the process of adopting words from other languages and also the result of this process. Not only the words but also word-building affixes were borrowed (-ment, -able, -ity). Distinction should be made between true B and words made of morphemes borrowed from Latin and Greek (telephone, phonogram). The term borrowing belongs to the diachronic description of the word stock. The difference should also be distinguished between source of borrowings (applied to the lang. from which this particular word was taken into English ) and origin of borrowed words (applied to the language the word may be traced to, e.g., table is French borrowing but it is Latin by origin).
Latin was for a long period used as the language of learning and religion. French has brought a lot of new notions of a higher social system, scientific and technical terms. It was the lang. of upper classes, official documents, and school instructions.
Borrowings enter the lang. through oral speech (in early periods of history) and written speech (mostly in recent years). All borrowed words undergo the process of assimilation. The degree of assimilation depends on the time of borrowing, the extent to which the word is used in the lang. and the way of borrowing. In English lang. B may be discovered through some peculiarities in pronunciation, spelling, morphological and semantic structures.
20. The theory of the word
Lexicology (from Greek word lexis-word and logos-learning) is a part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of the language and the properties of words as the main units of language. Lexicology studies words (their structure, meaning, origin) and their equivalents- phraseological units.
The term word denotes the basic unit of a given language resulting from the association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment. In other words, a word is the smallest, meaningful unit in the language which can stand alone in the sentence.
The question what is a word is not yet explained. There is a problem of word theory. There are three predictions of what a word is:
1.a separate language unit;
2.a minimum sentence (J. Swift);
3.a word must have form and meaning (a teacher);
Word’s features:
1.it consists of morphemes;
2.it must be independent;
3.it can have diff. grammatical forms (present, simple), syntactical functions(subject, object) and diff. meanings (a leg);
4.it has a meaning and a form;
5. indivisibility (we can’t devide a word without disturbing its meaning, e.g., blackboard, blackbird);
6.Positional mobility-a word can have diff. place in the sentence;
Motivation of the word means how the form of the word or the context of the word explains the meaning of the word. There are 3 types of motivation: morphological, semantic and phonetic.
Morphological motivation- we know the meaning of the word from its structure, e.g., a teacher- we know that this ending usually denotes a noun. We know the meaning of the word because we know its structure!
Semantic motivation means that we will not find the meaning of the word “ringer” in the dictionary but we will understand what this word means in the context.
Phonetic motivation means that the sound of the word suggests its own meaning.
Methods applied in studying vocabulary:
1. Descriptive (comparisons, equivalents)
2. Looking for analogies
3. Dividing words into constituent parts
Dichotomy of language- language has two parts: language (as a system-kalba) and speech (as an action-kalbejimas).

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