LEXICOLOGY. Lexicology is branch of linguistics which studies words, the study of form, meaning and behavior of words. Modern English lexicology aims at the systematic descriptions.
Morphological P.O.V. deals with forms of words, structure, it’s components.
Semantics- their meaning.
Etymology- the origin of the words.
Lexicography- is the writing or compilation of dictionaries.
MORPHOLOGY. Morpheme- the smallest meaningful unit. They constitute or build words.
Free- which coincide with the word, can function independently in a sentence.
Bound- cannot stand alone in a sentence.
Morpheme which function in a sentence is called morph. Morphs which are different representation of the same morpheme are reffered to as allomorphs of that morpheme. Information, classification-allomorphs.
SEMANTICS. The main objects of semantics: analyses distinctive features and types of lexical meaning, deals with polisemy and semantic. Objectives of lexicology – the meaning of the word, the main principles of the classification into various groups: synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms etc. systematic description of the vocabulary- it’s origin development, current usage and the sources of growth. Morphological structure of the word. Derivational structure of the word. The units of vocabulary or lexical units are two- facet elements possessing form and meaning. Two-faced meaning has form and content. The term word denotes the basic unit of language resulting from the association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds, characterized by grammatical employment. Words can be divided into morphemes, morphemes can be divided into letters. Eternal structure-morphological structure. Internal- semantic structure.
Features of the word:
Certain arrangement of morphemes,
Different word forms,
Different syntactic functions,
Signal various meanings (lexical grammatical),
Indivisible( cannot devide words without changing it’s meaning),
Mobile in a sentence.
Phonological word- group of sounds related to meaning. Morph words- a particular form of a word in a particular sentence. Lexeme- is the word in a dictionary with all his meanings. Set expressions or groups words- units in which words can be combined.
NOTION OF LEXICAL SYSTEM. The term system denoted a set of elements associated and functioning together according to certain laws. System constantly changes. A paradigm is a group of words related according to some common features (antonyms, synonyms, associative fields, lexical fields, lexico- grammatical classes.). lexical system can be organized synchronically (at the moment) and diachronically (in the development of the words). Associative fields – subjective combination of the word (grass: green. Wet, smell). Lexical/ semantic fields – it is a group of words which have a common area of meaning in which words interrelate and reflect a particular concept.
MEANING OF THE WORD
Semantics is defined as study of meaning. The aim: to explain and describe the meaning. Pragmatic deals with the meaning of the word in a sentence in a particular situation. Sentence- meaning relations between sentences. Lexical- the meaning of the words in the vocabulary and their relations.
LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS. Grammatical meaning of the word is its belonging to a particular lexico-grammatical class of words and having a particular grammatical employment. Lexical meaning is pointing at the things, phenomena, qualities in reality. Each word has a unique lexical meaning. Lexical meaning is more important than grammatical. 2 approaches in defining meaning: referential (formulates the essence of meaning as the relation of the word and concept the denote),and functional (function of a word in a speech).
Referential approach. Concept (meaning), sign (word), referent (thing meant) –triangle.
functional approach. We study the meaning of the word only through its relation to another word and not through its relation to either concept or referent.
Lexical meaning can be denoted into denotative and connotative.
Denotative names the objects, classifies our experience.
Connotative – assists the denotative meaning and renders speakers feelings and deals with pragmatic effect the word has upon the listener: stylistic, emotional, evaluative, expressive.
Polysemy of the word. A word having a meaning is monosemantic. A word having several meanings is polysemantic. Polisemy is the ability of a word to have several meanings. Words can have direct, figurative, main, secondary meaning.
The result of semantic change.
Specialization, generalization ( slow processes). Amelioration-elevation, pejoration-degradation.
SYNONYMY IN ENGLISH.
Synonyms are defined as words different in sound, form but identical or similar in meaning. Synonyms are two or more words and have the same denotational meaning, but shades would be different. Features:
Possessing identical meaning
Different in shades of meaning, connotation, affective value, style, emotional coloring and valency
Belonging to the same part of speech
Interchangeable at least in some contexts
Differing in morphemic composition, phonemic shape
Hyperonym serves as the name for the genus (type), general word for species. Hyponyms-lower level genus; sub-clasiffication of genus.
Classification of synonyms
Ideographic- syn. Which differ in shape and meaning, but express the same notion (anticipation-expectation)
Stylistic-words express the same notion, but belong to different style (begin-comense)
Absolute- coinside in both meaning and style (flexibal-bendable)
Contextual-words that became synonyms only in particular context (to buy- to get).
Euphemism. The word which is a round about way to avoid unpleasant situation. (toilet-ladies room).
Paronyms. The words which sound in a similar way but they have different meaning. Affect-effect.
Antonyms. Antonyms may be defined as two or more words belonging to the same semantic field, identical in style, associated and used together so that their denotative meanings render contradictory or contrary notions. Contradictory-denying one another, they are opposed. Contrary-also opposed, but they are gradable. Absolute are presented through different roots. Derivational- opposition is showed by prefix or suffix.
Homonymy in English. Words identical in sound or spelling, or both, but they don’t have anything in common in term of meaning.
Homonyms proper (writing and pronunciation)
Homophones (pronunciation) different spelling
Homographs ( graphical form) different pronunciation.
Full lexical homonyms- belong to the same POS and have identical paradigms (martch-match)
Simple lexico-grammatical partial homonyms-belong to the same POV but their paradigms do not coincide.
Complex lexico-grammatical partial homonyms-different parts of speech, forms coincide.
Partial lexical homonyms-identical forms coincide.
System of meaning. Componential analysis. Analysis of the meaning into components in componential analysis. 2 types: between separate words, between the meanings of polysemantic words.
2 types of semes: the markers refer to features which the word has in common with other lexical items.
The distinguisher as the term implies, differentiates the word from all other words.
Causes, nature and result of semantic change
Linguistic causes deal with linguistic process inside the language. They may be paradigmatic (differentiation between synonyms) and syntagmatic (with ellipsis).
Nature of semantic change. Metaphorical change, metonymical change. A metaphor is a transfer of a name based on an association of similarity and which is actually a hidden comparison. In a metonymy referring to one thing as if it was some other thing. Each metaphor has 3 components: tenor, vehicle, ground.
Types of similarity:
Of shape(head of cabbage)
Of function (the head of school)
Of position in space (foot of a mountain)
Of behavious (bookworm)
Lexicography –science of compiling dictionaries in order to describe their meaning. Dictionary – a text that describes the meaning of words, often illustrates how they are used in content and usually indicates the transcription. Classification: 1. Monolingual or explanatory. 2. Bilingual or multilingual. 3. General or special. 4. Linguistic or non-linguistic. 5. Arranged alphabetically or semantically.
Idioms. Are word groups consisting of two or more words, which are syntactically related and their relation has a fixed meaning. They can be emotional (to know the ropes), demotivated (tit for tat), terms (direct object), political clichés( cold war). Classification of idiom: idiomatic fusions, idiomatic combinations, idiomatic images.
Formal and functional classification –their meaning belonging to a particular part of speech (nominal, verbal, adjectival, adverbial, prepositional, conjunctional, interjectional, stereotyped phrases.
-according to structure: N+N, N+PRP+N, N+AND+N, ADJ+N, N+subordinate clause.
Morphemic structure of English words
The morpheme is the smallest indivisible two-facet and meaningful unit, which is indivisible into smaller meaningful units and found as an integral part of the word. They are not autonomous and cant stand alone in a sentence.
Root morphemes: nucleus of the word and it has general meaning and no part of speech root.
Affixal morphemes: build new words or word forms.
Prefixes –the morpheme which goes before the root. Suffixes- morphemes, which go after the root or another suffix.
Homonymy. Free morphemes can stand alone in a sentence. Bound morphemes cant stand alone, always goes together with another morpheme.
An allomorph- a positional variant of morpheme which is identical in meaning and origin but occurs in different specific environment. Prefixal allomorphs (il,im,in) suffixal allomorphs (able, and, ent).
Meaning in morphemes. Lexical meaning. In root morpheme the meaning is identical to word meaning. Denotative (reflects essential features), connotative (additional meaning).
Morphemic analysis of the word. The aim is to single out and characterize the morphemes in a word. The result is ultimate constituents – morphemes further indivisible meaningfully. Can be carried out in two ways: root principle (find the root which is recruited in all the words), the affix principle (we take a derivational set (group of words) which contain identical suffix).
Affixation- affixal way of forming words by derivational means (adding suffixes and prefixes).
Noun bases can form: nouns, adjectives, verbs.
Verb bases: nouns, adjectives
Adjectival base: nouns, adjectives, verbs.
Adverbial bases are derivationally passive-they do not build new words.
Derivational properties of the base: single bases consists of one root. 1st degree have 1 affix, 2nd-two, 3rd-3.
Semantic properties. Bases can be polisemantic (if, it, is, so), they can build more words.
Prefixes have only lexical meaning, because they do not change POS.
Morphological meaning of suffixes- they can build nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, pronouns.
Semantically affixes have denotative and connotative components of meaning. Suffixes can be monosemantic and polisemantic. Homonymous suffixes build words of different parts of speech. Suffixes and prefixes can be productive and unproductive. Prefixes and suffixes can be active and non- active.
NON- AFFIXAL WAYS OF WORD BUILDING
Conversion, adjectivization, substantivization, composition, clipping, back-formation, blending, abbreviations and acronyms, reduplication.
CONVERSION –non-affixal way of word formation which results in a part of semantically related words belonging to different parts of speech and have different position in sentence. Patterns:
N->V ( box-to box), V->N (to walk-a walk), ADJ->V (clean-to clean). properties of conversion: phonetic-pronounced the same, semantic-semantically related, morphological-belong to different POS, syntanctic-function as different members of sentence. Rules distinguishing motivating and motivated: regular semantic relations, semantic inclusion, frequency of usage, derivational criterion, the criteria of synonymity. The relations: N->V, motivating denotes human beings, animals..motivated Vdenotes actions, characteristics of N. instrumental relations. N denotes concrete object and V express action of removing. Relation of acquisition, N denotes living beings, parts of plants. N denotes places or container. V->N (v always denotes process). Single acts. Recent actions. Denotes a place of an action. N denotes an agent.
Semantic inclusion- the motivated word includes the meaning of the motivating word.
ADJECTIVIZATION- way of building adjectives from participle 1 and 2. Participles are always motivating and are polysemantic words. Adjectives built from them are monosemantic. Morphological criteria-Adj. built from participles have their own paradigm.
SUBSTANTIVIZATION-a process of forming nouns from adjective base without adding derivational affixes.
Pattern- Adj->N. types: complete- 1. The substantivized Adj. acquires the paradigm of a noun a private,privates, privates’. 2. Takes the indefinite or zero article. Partial: it has only one form- with the definite article and agrees with the verb in plural rich-the rich.
COMPOSITION OR COMPOUND-process of word building by joining two bases together N+N->N
the result is compound word. Compound proper: Base +Base (snowball). Compound derivatives: Base+Base+suffix long-legged.
TYPES OF COMPOSITION: without linking element (wallflower), with linking vowel or consonant (speedometer), with prepositions or cunjunctions as linking elements (back-to-back), containing several free roots (marry-go-round). Compounds according to semantic criterion: motivated –meaning can be understood from meaning of bases (sunbeam), non-motivated (wallflower). Additives- denote a person/object that is 2 things at a time (queen-bee). Reduplicative compounds containing 2 identical stems (goody-goody). Compounds of twin forms differing only in a vowel and rhyme (willy-nilly).
COMPOUND DERIVATIVES. PATTERNS: 1. A phrase (adj+n)+ed kind-hearted. 2. A phrase (adj+n)+ish old-maidish. 3. A prhase+er a theater-goer. 4. A phrase+adjectivization to reach far-far-reaching.5. phrasal verb+adjectivization to go on-ongoing. 6. A phrase+conversion to make up –makeup
CLIPPING- cutting away a part of the word, but the meaning remains unchanged. Types:
1. Final –lab-laboratory
2. Initial- aeroplane-plane
3. Mixed- middle part is left
4. Medial- middle part is clipped spectacles- specs.
Abreviation-built from the first letters of the word group and they are read according to the spelling convention (VAT-value-added tax). When they are read as regular words-Acronyms (laser, unesco)
REDUPLICATION-repetition of the whole base or just part of it. complete reduplication: puff-puff. Partial reduplication –one element changed, result is reduplicative compound ding-dong.
BACK-FORMATION is building of a new word by deletion of a suffix, or supposed suffix
-a begger-to beg, an editor-to edit
BLENDING- joining two fragments of words and putting them together: motor+hotel->motel, breakfast+lunch->brunch.
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