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Consonants meet an obstruction-friction,noise,plosion dominates. A consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Each spoken consonant can be distinguished by several phonetic features:[8]

  • The manner of articulation is how air escapes from the vocal tract when the consonant or approximant (vowel like) sound is made. Manners include stops, fricatives and nasals.
  • The place of articulation is where in the vocal tract the obstruction of the consonant occurs, and which speech organs are involved. Places include bilabial (both lips), alveolar (tongue against the gum ridge), and velar (tongue against soft palate). Additionally, there may be a simultaneous narrowing at another place of articulation, such as palatalisation or pharyngealisation.
  • The phonation of a consonant is how the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. When the vocal cords vibrate fully, the consonant is called voiced; when they do not vibrate at all, it’s voiceless.
  • The voice onset time (VOT) indicates the timing of the phonation. Aspiration is a feature of VOT.
  • The airstream mechanism is how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered. Most languages have exclusively pulmonic egressive consonants, which use the lungs and diaphragm, but ejectives, clicks and implosives use different mechanisms.
  • The length is how long the obstruction of a consonant lasts. This feature is borderline distinctive in English, as in “wholly” [hoʊlli] vs. “holy” [hoʊli], but cases are limited to morpheme boundaries. Unrelated roots are differentiated in various languages such as Italian, Japanese and Finnish, with two length levels, “single” and “geminate“. Estonian and some Sami languages have three phonemic lengths: short, geminate, and long geminate, although the distinction between the geminate and overlong geminate includes suprasegmental features.

The articulatory force is how much muscular energy is involved. This has been proposed many times, but no distinction relying exclusively on force has ever been demonstrated


In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! [ɑː] or oh! [oʊ], pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. The articulatory features that distinguish different vowel sounds are said to determine the vowel’s quality. Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the common features height (vertical dimension), backness (horizontal dimension) and roundedness (lip position). There are however still more possible features of vowel quality, such as the velum position (nasality), type of vocal fold vibration (phonation), and tongue root position.


Junction- two things meet or are joined in one place./ merging- to combine two or more things to form a single one.)Merging of stages is a simpler and looser way of joining sounds together. It usually takes place if two adjacent (adjacent -next to or near sth) sounds of a different nature are joined together. In this case the end of the preceding sound penetrates (penetrates- go into/through) the beginning of the following sound. During the merging of stages some organs of speech move away from the position taken up for the pronunciation of the first sound and others move to take up the position necessary for the articulation of the second sound.Merges of stages usually takes place when sounds of different nature are joined together that is to say, the sounds articulated:by the different organs of speech, e.g.: C+V: /pa:t/ part, /mi:/ me, /fo:/ four. V+C: /a:m/ arm, /i:v/ eve. C+C: /fju:/ few, /spel/ spell., by the different parts of the tongue, e.g.:C+V: /giv/ give, C+C: /kju:/ queue, V+C: /i:gl/ eagle, V+V: / / curiosity, both by different organs of speech and by different parts of the tongue,e.g. C+V: /wi:/ we V+C /-i:w-/ (as in the employee was talking to the manager.)


Interpretation of stages usually takes place when consonants of a similar or identical nature are joined. In this case the end of the first sound penetrates not only into the beginning but also into the middle part of the second sound, as in / /act , begged /begd/.Sounds of a similar nature articulated by different parts of the tongue.In the pronunciation of /kt/, /gd/ the organs of speech move away already in the middle of the first sound to take up the position necessary to pronounce the second sound. (In pronouncing /-kt/ the stream of air is stopped by the obstruction of /t/, and for this reason the plosion of /k/ is not heard. So there are only one plosion, that of the sound /t/, because the sounds are joined together by interpenetration of stages.)In joining /g/ and /d/ in the /gd/ –cluster (cluster- group of consonants which come together in a word or phrase) the above described work of the tongue is accompanied by the vibration of vocal cords.Sounds of a similar nature articulated by the same part of the tongue(with the same place of articulation.)Two adjacent dental sounds with different manner of the production of noise are linked by interpenetration of stages of stages as - in the, month, at the, all that.In the pronunciation of /nthz/ /nth/ /t thz/ /l thz/ the organs of speech, moving away to take up the position necessary to pronounce the first sound, are already partly preparing for the pronunciation of the second, as both them are dental. (Th tai pavadinau ta apvalu per pilvuka perbraukta garsa, o thz tai tas kaip sesetukas I kita puse ir perbrauktu sparneliu :D)The same type of junction takes place when two alveolar consonants with different manner of the production of noise are joined together as in : written, burden, little, middle.Identical sounds.Two identical sounds are joined together as follows: the second sound penetrates into the beginning of the first one, that is the organs of speech, while moving to take up the position necessary to pronounce the first sound, already fully prepare for the pronunciation of the second as in:C+C: unknown, this story, last time, with them.A change in the tenseness of articulation takes place when any two sounds are joined together in English, though this is not the only thing that characterizes the junction of the sounds, whereas in the case of two identical sounds the change in the tenseness is the only thing that marks the end of one sound and the beginning of the other.Sounds of a different nature articulated by the different organs of speech are joined together by means of interpretation of stages even though they are of a different nature. During the articulation of /h/ the tongue is prepared for the pronunciation of the following vowel, e.g. he, who, etc. So the on-glide of the vowel partly coincides with the on-glide of /h/.


rhythm - the notion of rhythm involves some noticeable event happening at regular intervals of time. The theory that implies that stressed syllables will tend to occur at regular intervals whether they are separated by unstressed syllables or not. e.g. ‘walk ‘down the ‘path to the ‘end of the ca’nal

elision - losing sounds e.g. all right / o:lraˆt /® / o:raˆt /, next day / nekst deˆ /® / neks deˆ/

linking - adding or joining sounds between words. The most familiar case is the use of linking r

the phoneme r can not occur in syllable- final position in RP, but when a word’s spelling suggests a final r, and a word beginning with a vowel follows, the usual pronunciation for RP speakers is to pronounce with r e.g. here is /hˆ…r iz/ here was /hˆ… w…z/


In accommodation the accommodated sound does not change its main phonemic features and is pronounced as a variant of the same phoneme slightly modified under the influence of a neighbouring sound. (consonant and vowel)

Types: 1. An unrounded variant of a consonant phoneme is replaced by its rounded variant under the influence of a following rounded vowel phoneme. e.g. tea /ti:/ - unrounded, too /tu:/- rounded

2. A fully back variant of a back vowel phoneme is replaced by its slightly advanced (fronted) variant under the influence of the preceding mediolingual phoneme /j/ e.g. moon /mu:n/ fully back variant, music /mju:zik/ - fronted variant

3. A vowel phoneme is represented by its slightly more open variant before the dark /l/ under the influence of the latter’s back secondary focus. e.g. bell, tell (because b, t are more open than in bed ten )


Assimilation - is when two adjacent (gretimas) consonants within a word or at word boundaries (riba) often influence each other in such a way that the articulation of one sound becomes similar to or even identical with the articulation of the other one. (consonant and consonant)

Types: assimilation affecting: 1. the point of articulation and active organs of speech 2. the manner of the production of noise 3. the work of the vocal cords 4. the lip position 5. the position of the soft palate

Degrees: 1.complete - when the articulation of the assimilated consonant fully coincides with that of the assimilating one. e.g. horse-shoe /ho:s + Œu: = hoŒŒu:/

2. partial – when assimilated consonant retains its main phonemic features and becomes only partly similar in some features of its articulation to the assimilating sound e.g. twice /twais/ (w veikia t todel t becomes more rounded t.y. kitaip tariam t garsa nei pvz zodyje tea)

3. intermediate – is between complete and partial when the assimilated consonant changes into a different sound, but does not coincide (sutampa) with the assimilating consonant e.g. newspaper /nju:z + peˆp… = nju:speˆp… / (p veikia z todel ji sudusleja ir tampa s)

Directions: 1. progressive A®B e.g. what’s / wot + iz = wots/ 2. regressive A¬B e.g. give me /giv + mi= gimmi/ 3. double A«B e.g. quick /kwik/


principal variant of a phoneme is the most representative of its sounds, that is to say , it preserves to the fullest extent all of its characterictic features, both distinctive and non-distinctive


A subsidiary variant is one that lacks one or more features of a principal variant or has them in a modified form. This happens due to partial assimilation and adaptation.


Accent: In linguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation of a language.

Types of accent and articulatory means by which it is affected . 1.Dynamic or force stress 2.Musical or pitch, or tonic accent 3.Quantitative accent 4.Qualitative accent Degrees of stress a)British – primary, secondary, weak; b)American – primary, secondary, tertiary, weak The English word accentuation tendencies; Recessive, unrestricted, restricted, Rhythmical, Retentive, Semantic

11. Dialect- a variety of a language that is distinguished from other varieties of the same language by features of phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, and by its use by a group of speakers who are set off from others geographically or socially.


“Standard English” was established in the City of London. A mixture of London speech with elements from East Midlands, Middlesex and Essex, became known as RP.

3 types: conservative(refers to a traditional accent associated with older speakers with certain social backgrounds ),general(considered neutral regarding age, occupation, or lifestyle of the speaker ),advanced(refers to speech of a younger generation of speakers ).

General RP-is taught to non-natives.


General American (GA), also known as Standard American English (SAE), is a major accent of American English. The accent is not restricted to the United States. Within American English, General American and accents approximating it are contrasted with Southern American English, several Northeastern accents, and other distinct regional accents and social group accents like African American Vernacular English. As RP, it is meant to remove any association with a person’s background and is commonly used in the media.


Non-rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ ONLY if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit (see “linking and intrusive R”).


Rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ in all positions.


The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English, often abbreviated to SSE. SSE may be defined as “the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools.”

However, Scottish English does have some distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems.

Scottish English is a rhotic accent; makes a distinction between the vowels in herd, bird, and curd.


A fast, highly accented manner of speech, with a range of rising and falling tones not typical of most of northern England. Letter ‘h’ as /heits/ and the 2nd Person plural (you) as ‘youse/yous/use’ /ju:z/. The south side of the city has a softer, lyrical tone, while the north a rougher, more gritty accent. Those differences can be seen in the pronunciation of the vowels. The northern half of the city more frequently pronounces words such as ‘book’ and ‘cook’ differently, whereas the southern half of the city is closer to the RP English pronunciation of these words.

The phoneme /k/ in all positions of a word except the beginning can be realised as /x/ or sometimes /kx/. It’s a non-rhotic accent, pronouncing /r/ only at the beginning of a syllable and between vowels.


It’s a Brythonic Celtic language and a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom, spoken in Cornwall.

  1. YORKSHIRE DIALEC/Hudderfield accent

Yorkshire speakers have short [a] in words like bath, grass, and chance as opposed to the long [a:] of RP; No contrast between short “u” and “a”, making pairs of words like put and putt homophones, both pronounced as the former with a short “u”; It’s a non-rhotic accent.

Vowels are pronounced longer; “the”>>>”t”,endings are omitted(e.g.: “-ing” becomes “-in”)


It’s a direct continuation and development of the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon settlers. Geordie has a large amount of vocabulary not heard elsewhere in England.


Dialect differences in class,age,education,etc. E.g.: The differences between the 3 branches of RP.


Is influenced by ethnicity. Things like heritage,adopted culture,etc. have an impact up to the point of changes in dictionary,pronunciation,creation of a slang,e.g.: “Black” English.


English spoken in other countries and/or continents, where it is considered to be the primary language. E.g.: American,Australia,New Zeland,Canadian,etc. It also analyses the differences in smaller regions(e.g.: adopted dialects between [different] cities).,e.g.: S.English,N.English,Standart Scotish,E./S./General American,etc.


It’s a degree of formality depending on the situation(e.g.: difference in how you talk in a party or at a work environment). Types: Frozen/Very formal-printend,unchanging language,e.g.: Biblical quatations. Formal-one-way participation, no interruption. Technical vocabulary; “Fuzzy semantics” or exact definitions are important. Includes introductions between strangers. . Neutral/Consultative-two-way participation. Background information is provided — prior knowledge is not assumed. “Back-channel behaviour” such as “uh huh”, “I see”, etc. is common. Interruptions are allowed. . Casual/Very informal-In-group friends and acquaintances. No background information provided. Ellipsis and slang common. Interruptions common. Intimate-Non-public.Intonation more important than grammar.


The characteristic quality of a sound, independent of pitch and loudness, from which its source or manner of production can be inferred. Timbre depends on the relative strengths of the components of different frequencies, which are determined by resonance.


aspects of connected speech: rhythm, elision, linking

rhythm - the notion of rhythm involves some noticeable event happening at regular intervals of time. The theory that implies that stressed syllables will tend to occur at regular intervals whether they are separated by unstressed syllables or not. e.g. ‘walk ‘down the ‘path to the ‘end of the ca’nal

elision - losing sounds e.g. all right / o:lraˆt /® / o:raˆt /, next day / nekst deˆ /® / neks deˆ/

linking - adding or joining sounds between words. The most familiar case is the use of linking r

the phoneme r can not occur in syllable- final position in RP, but when a word’s spelling suggests a final r, and a word beginning with a vowel follows, the usual pronunciation for RP speakers is to pronounce with [r] e.g. here is /hˆ…r iz/ here was /hˆ… w…z/


2. Segmental phonology-deals with the analysis of speech into segmental phonemes (sounds), which correspond fairly well to phonetic segments of the analyzed speech. E.g. Word /cat/ consist of 3 segments, c,a,t, in the spelling.

3. Suprasegmental phonology-deals with stress and intonation. Studies those aspects of speech that extend over more than one segment.

4. Phonetic system-a branch of linguistic. It is study of speech sounds. It studies oral language. It consists of: sounds, syllables, stress, intonation- all these parts form our pronunciation.

5. Articulatory aspect of speech sound-are connected with sound juncture and with the theories of syllable formation and division. Articulatory phonetic studies how the speech sounds are pronounced. This is what describes the actual sound in detail.

6. Acoustic aspect of speech sound-a syllable is characterized by force of utterance, or accent, pitch of voice. Sonority and length, that is by prosodic features. Acoustic phonetic deals with the physical properties of sound, what sound exactly are coming from the person speaking.

7. Functional aspects of speech sound-characteristic of syllable are connected with constitutive, recognitive and distinctive properties of syllable.

The constitutive function- constitutes all morphemes words. (man, men)

The distinctive function-a minimal pair (cold-gold)

The recognitive function-helps au to recognize what is being said.

Phonemic studies how the sounds are used.

8. Affricates are combination of plosive and fricative sounds. They begin like plosive, with a complete closure, but instead of a plossion, they have a very slow release, moving backwards to a place where a friction can be heard. Ts,dz

9. Diphthongs-vowels that change character during their pronunciation that is they begin at one vowel-position, and move towards another. 8 diphthongs.

10. Phonemic transcription-(is the visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet).it is based on one symbol per phoneme. Each of symbols denotes a phoneme as whole i.e. as an abstraction and generalization. (Bed)

11. Allophonic transcription-(in which different symbols are used for a single phoneme when this phoneme occurs in different contexts.) it contains a lot of information about the exact quality of each sound.

12. Phoneme- (sound) is the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes meaning. Phonemes are not the physical segments themselves, but abstractions of them. An example of a phoneme would be the /t/ found in words like tip, stand, writer, and cat. A phoneme can include slightly different sounds or phones. For instance, the p sound in the English words pin and spin is pronounced differently.

Phoneme has 3 aspects:

1. Material, real, objective

2. abstractional, generalized

3. Functional

13. Allophone-different realization of the same phoneme..Allophones are subdivided into principal and subsidiary.

Principal allophones are not influenced by the neighboring sounds (cat, make). Most representative of a phoneme as whole, in the sense that it has the greatest number of articulatory feature among all the others variants of phoneme. (t – Plosive, voiceless, occlusive, forelingual unit).

Subsidiary allophones are subjected to assimilation or accommodation (triumph, fond, kettle).

Combinatory – they are influenced by neighboring sounds, the specific sounds they are joined together (/tu/ t- becomes rounded due to –u-)

Positional – allophones that are found in traditionally position. (Field – before‘d’, ‘l’ is always dark.)

14. Minimal pairs-is defined as pair of words with different meanings which are pronounced exactly the same way except for one sound that differs. Eg. Let-lit, pat-bat

15. Contrastive distribution-when phonemes are found in contrastive pairs. If two sounds are separate phonemes, then two sounds are contrastive. Pair of phones is contrastive if interchanging the two can change the meaning of a word. Eg. Sock-shock, where the two meanings are distinguished by the occurrence of /s/ or /sh/.

16. Complementary distribution-when the strict separation of places where particular realizations can occur is observed. Phones that are in complementary distribution are allophones of single phoneme. Eg. Spoof-poof.

17. Syllable- is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants).A word that consists of a single syllable (cat) is called a monosyllable. Two syllables (monkey) -disyllable. Three syllables -trisyllable . More than three syllables (intelligence) - polysyllable.

The parts of the syllable: peak-central part of the syllable, most commonly a vowel. Onset - segments preceding a peak. Coda- segments following a peak. Rhyme - a peak and coda taken together. Eg. Cat- /a/peak, /c/ onset, /t/ coda /at/ rhyme.

18. Phonotactics (in Greek phone = voice and tactic = course) is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. Phonotactics defines permissible syllable structure, consonant clusters, and vowel sequences by means of phonotactical constraints.

19. The Sonority Sequencing Principle is a phonotactic principle that aims to outline the structure of a syllable in terms of sonority. In any syllable, the center of the syllable, namely the syllable nucleus, or the vowel, constitutes a sonority peak that is preceded and/or followed by a sequence of segments–consonants–with progressively decreasing sonority values (i.e., the sonority has to fall toward both edges of the syllable).word “trust”:

20. Constraints on syllable formation-

1) A syllable boundary (riba) is found wherever there is a word boundary that also coincides (sutampa) with the morphological boundary between elements in a compound. (nutshel-sudurt.zodziai).

2) Affricates can’t be split.

3) When A and B and phonotactic constraints allow, consonants are syllabified with whichever of the 2 adjacent vowels which are more strongly stressed.

Universal properties of syllables:

1) Syllables begin with a consonant (onset)

2) Syllables have 1 vowel (peak)

3) Syllables end with a vowel (nocoda)

4) Syllables have at most one consonant at an edge (* complex)

5) Syllables are composed of consonants and vowels (onset and coda)

21. Accent/stress-the singling out of one or more syllables in word, which is accompanied by the change of force of utterance, pitch of the voice qualitative characteristic of the sound, which is usually a vowel.

The greater degree if prominence given to one or more syllables as compared with that of the other syllable or syllables in one and the same word.

Types of accent:

Dynamic or force stress (intensity of articulation)

Musical of pitch, or tonic accent (different pitch level of different pitch direction)

Quantitative accent (when we make longer the vowel)

Qualitative (when we obscure a vowel phoneme)

Degrees of stress:

British-primary (the stronger degree of stress), secondary (is weaker degree of stress), weak

Americ- primary, secondary, tertiary, weak

22. Rhythmic tendency-alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables. Eg.radical

Retentive –retention of the primary stress on the parent word. Eg.person,personal

Semantic-the existence of certain categories of words the accentuation of which is the crucial determining factor. Eg.well known, sit down.

23. Recessive tendency results in placing stress on the initial syllable. There are 2 subtypes:

Unrestricted recessive - falls on the first syllable.

Restricted recessive - characterized by placing stress on the root of the word with a prefix that has no meaning.

24. Intonation- is the variation of pitch when speaking. Intonation is the rise and fall of the voice in speaking, especially as this affects the meaning of what is being said. Intonation components are stress, rhythm, pausation and tempo, tone and melody.

Functions of intonation:

The attitudinal-it enables us to express emotions and attitudes as we speak and this adds special meaning to the spoken language.

The accentual –it helps to mark out the word which is the most important in the tone unit.

The grammatical –it helps to make questions, statements…

The discourse- the regulation of conversational behavior.

25.The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by linguists, speech pathologists and therapists, foreign language teachers and students, singers, actors, lexicographers, and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are distinctive in spoken language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables.

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