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Phonetic expressive means
Onomatopoeia- imitation of sounds (ding dong, meow).
Alliteration- repetition of initial consonants in two or more words next to another.
Assonance- used to signify recurrence of stressed vowels. (laden, aiden).
Rhyme- repetition of identical or similar final sound combinations of words.
Graphical stylistic devices
Graphon- non-standart spelling showing deviations of emphasis.
Lexical expressive means and SD’s
Irony-realization of dictionary and contextual meaning of words, but they stand in opposition to one another.
Zeugma- use of a word in the same gramm. But different semantic relations to two adjacent words in the context, one literal and one transferred (plunging into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room).
Pun- play upon words.
Epithet- pointing out some properties of the object (loud ocean, green grass)
Oxymoron- a combination of two words in which the meaning of the two clash. (awfully beautiful).
Antonomasia- the interplay between the logical and nominal meaning of a word, points out the leading person or event (the Bores and the Queens).
Simile- the intensification of some features of the concept. Uses (like, as, such, as if, seem) busy as a bee.
Periphrasis- a description or naming of something in direct way or in other words, longer phasing instead of possible shorter ( the fair sex - women)
Hyperbole- deliberate overstatement or exaggeration.
The cliché- an expression that has become fixed.
Proverbs and sayings.
Epigrams- similar to proverbs but they are coined by individuals whose names we know.
Allusion- indirect reference to historical, biblical, mythological fact, must be well known.
Syntactical SDs
Stylistic inversion- deals with word order. Unusual arrangement of words to make them more emphatic.
Detached construction- one of the secondary parts of the sentence that is placed so that it seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to.
Parallel construction- identical or similar syntactical structure in two or more sentence or parts of a sentence in close succession.
Chiasmus -based on repetition of a syntactical pattern but it has a reverse order of words and phrases
(down dropped the breeze, the sails dropped down)
*anaphoric- comes at the beginning
*Epiphoric- comes at the end
*reduplication-last word is repeated in the beginning of the other phrase
*root-word is repeated but the root is changed
Suspense- device which consists of arranging the matter of a communication in such way that the less important parts are at the beginning of a sentence, most important at the end.
Climax- arrangement of sentences which secures a gradual increase in significance.
Antithesis- contractive pairs (youth is lovely, age is lonely)
Asyndeton- connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any formal sign.
Polysyndeton- connecting sentences or phrases by using connectives before each component part.
Ellipsis-implies absence of one or both principle parts of the sentence. Very often the subject or predicate is missing.
Break -in -the -narrative- denotes intentional stopping or intentional rejection to continue the utterance to the end.
Question-in-the-narrative- question is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author.
Rhetorical question- a kind of statement in the form of the question. Meaning: doubt, assertion, suggestion.
Litotes-consists of a peculiar use of negation. Negation serves to establish a positive feature. (not without taste).


Stylistics is concerned with systematic analysis of style in language, and how style can vary according to genre, context, etc.
Analyzing style-looking suplematically at the formal features of a text determing their functions.
Stylistics objectives-investigation of linguistic inventory and certain types of texts.
Notions of stylistics-principles that explain choices made in language, a method of textual interpretation, scope is text and literature in broad sense.
Style- contextually restricted linguistic variation, for of expression.
Idiolect-unique combination of language units etc peculiar to a given writer, which makes his words easily recognizable.
Deviation results in foregrounding.
Foregrounding refers to features of the text which in some sense stand out from their surroundings.
Rhymes in stanza:
*couplets- aa
*triple rhyme-aaa
*cross rhymes-abab
*framing or ring-abba
*internal-rhyming words are placed in the middle of the line
Rhyme is measured by foot.
5 Metrical patterns- iambic metre, trochaic, dactylic, amphibrachic, anapestic
Graphology- equal to phonology in written language, is conveyed through visual.
1. Belles-lettres
a. Poetry
b. Prose
c. Drama
2. Publicistic style
a. Oratory
b. Essay(book review)
c. Feature article(journalistic)
3. Newspaper style
a. Ads and announcements
b. The headlines
c. The editorial
4. Scientific prose style
a. Postulatory-gives a fact
b. Argumentative- proves it
c. Formulative- conclusion
5. Official documents
a. Business docs
b. Legal docs
c. Diplomacy
d. Military docs
6. Electronic communication
a. Emails
b. E-forum
c. Text messages
Expressive means and stylistic devices-are units which are foregrounded in text, they have additional stylistic meaning.
EXPRESSIVE MEANS may not evoke any representation of feelings, but merely serve the purpose of logical stressing of the utterance.
STYLISTIC DEVICES-conscious intensification of some typical structural or semantic pattern into which any content can be put.
EM-a greater degree of predictability, follow natural course of thought, intensification by means commonly used.
SD-environment is not predictable, greater amount of info, special linguistic code, effort to decode.

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