1. Translation: terms, characteristics, kinds and history; place in linguistic studies.
Translation- translacio (Latin) means transferring from one language to another.
Rendering (perteikimas-) the meaning of a source language into a target language, keeping the semantic invariant (the author’s intended thoughts, style).
Translation studies- the term was introduced 20 years ago. It covers several points: translation itself; history of translation; theory of translation, translation criticism.
Translation has 2 meanings: 1) activity itself (the process of translating) and its scientific description; 2) the result (a piece of work). Basic terms: SL- language of the original; TL- into which translation is done.
Translation- written form rendering one meaning into the other.
Interpretation- the oral speech (explanation rather subjective).
Kinds of translation:
1.from the manner of translating and the form of presentation: *written (documents, fictions, etc.), *oral (consecutive includes int. 5-10 sec.; simultaneous- at the same time; both are employed at conferences, meetings); *mixed (oral/ written, written/oral); 2. according to type of text: *artistic/ free (prose, poetry); *non-artistic/ literal (formal, publicistic, scientific, official, etc.). 3.translator: *human translation; *machine; *mixed;
Simultaneous translation was introduced in America in 1946; it’s connected with shortening of information, only 70-75% if information is conveyed: Jacobson distinguished 3 types of translation: 1. intralingual translation/ rewording- interpretation of verbal signs by other verbal signs in the same language); 2. interlingual/ translation proper- verbal signs of one language by means of another signs of different languages). 3. intersemiotic/ transmutation- verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign system;
HISTORY of translation. The reason for starting translation was the need for communication. Merchants were the 1st to translate king’s laws. 1st interpreters were women, who were stolen from their tribes and had to start speaking another tribe’s language. Written translation appeared in 18-13 c. BC. The 1st was Babylonian epic poem. G. Steimer divided the literature on translation into 4 periods. 1. from times of Cicero and Horace up to 1791 (the publication of Titler’s book). This perdiopd is characterized by empirical focus. In 46 BC- to retain meaning and not to translate literally. They read other translations, analyzed them. Horace wrote some works on translation. Cicero as translator pointed out the dilemma of translating; the translator becomes a co-author, takes a meaning of one language and conveys it to another. Translation flourished in Ancient Rome (I-II c. BC). Romans paid the main attention to the aesthetics but not to accuracy.
With the spread of Christianity in Europe translation acquired another role; it became a means of speaking Christian beliefs. The 1st translation of the Bible appeared in Greece in the 3rd c. BC. It was translated into Latin in the 4-5 c. AD. The Bible was translated into German (Gothic) in the 4th c. Martin Luther translated the Bible into German in 16th c. it’s the most important translation of the Bible. In the 16th c. were 1st attempts to theoretical considering of the process. The French linguist E. Dolet was the beginner of the theory. In his book he presented 5 principles of translation: *the translator must fully understand the meaning and the sense of the original; *to have good knowledge of both TL & SL; *to avoid word for word translation; *to employ widely used linguistic forms; *to achieve the impression produced by original.
In 18th c. A. Titler’s volume “The principle of translation” was published. It was the 1st systematic study in English of translation process. 3 principles: *fully convey the original’s ideas; *the style and manner should correspond to those of the original; *the translation should be read as fluently as the original.
2.from Titler’s publication till 1946 (post-war period). It was a period of theory and hermeneutics* inquires (=philosophical approach) - explanation/ decoding of sense. There are 2 levels of understanding: *empirical-grammar, stylistics, history, psychology; *rational- what ideas are presented in the SL text. Linguistic studies developed at this period.
3.1946-60s- publications of papers on machine translation. It’s characterized by the introduction of structural linguistics and communication theory into the study of translation.
4.from early 60s to 20th c. It’s characterized by reversion to hermeneutics for translation and interpretation (rhetoric, poetics, the study of grammar, etc. all are combined to study the language).
Relations with other subjects: since 1965 great progress has been made in the history of translation and a lot of attention was paid to different aspects of translation. It’s related to language and forms of language. From that time languages were studied in different forms (phonology, syntax, lexicology, etc.). Translation is related to lots of subjects; they are divided to macro and micro linguistics: *micro linguistics is related to grammar, syntax, stylistics, typology, phonetics, phonology. Translation studies here involve everything (phrases, sentences, bound morphemes). *Macro linguistics: subjects and disciplines which have linguistics as part of it: sociolinguistics- relationships between society and language; psycholinguistics- the mental state, speaking, translating; ethno linguistics- studying ethnic minorities; geographic linguistics- dealing with geographical areas and language of these places; comparative linguistics- translation studies are based on this linguistics.
2. Theory of translation: its rise and development, descriptive aspects.
Theory- the analysis of general correspondence, rules, etc. of a certain phenomenon. The scientific sphere of translation: translation as a process was introduced. There was an attempt to accept translation as a science. Science can be referred to translation on the level of general action and relation (how much the translation is needed) 20th c. is a century of structuralism. It added to translation theory.
The subject of theory- scientific description (objective, descriptive) of the process of translation. The aim- to help people to communicate and to transfer communication from SL to TL. It aims at modeling and patterning the general correspondences. (General principles correspond to the most objective representation, in different cases, different means and devices should be used). To present general regularities in the process of translation, e.g. SPO- pattern of an English sentence.
The theory of translation deals with: 1) the process of translating; 2) the product of the author (the text).
The theory has some preconditions (prielaidos).
1.social (2 or 3- sided communication in post war period, migration, tourism, conferences); 2. technical (development of machine translation, computers, mass media, TV, radio services). 3. linguistic (achievements in psychology, lexicology, typology, studies developed). 4. the increasing amount of translations as the 20th c. saw lots of conferences, meetings, etc. All this brought certain requirements for the translator a) to have the basic knowledge of TL; b) ability to obtain knowledge (to have a very wide scope of language); c) to be able to turn the acquired knowledge to another field (specific texts).
T. C. Catford introduced a “linguistic theory of translation” (rules for translation) in 1965. He said there are no stable and strong principles in translating.
The aspects of the theory: 1) descriptive (rules, generalities); 2) prescriptive (revealed in recommendations for various cases in translation).
The theory is translation is accepted as a descriptive theory describing regularities between SL and TL. It is also characterized by prescriptive as it presents regularities for discussion. 1st of all there must be a descriptive element but these 2 aspects cannot be separated.
Steps in translating a text. Translation is characterized by procedures which include 4 levels: 1) textual a) grammar level: words, phrases, word combinations. The aim is to transpose the grammar of SL to TL. Syntax is important. Problem: border line cases.
E.g. there’s letter from my sister > attribute? >Object? b) lexical. We can either use dictionary translation (proper) or take the word as it is (> cepelinai: > explained; > transliterated). 2) referential. In this level it is important to understand what the author means by a sentence, what is really happening and why: facts behind the sentence. Referential level presupposes situation- wider look at the elements of the text itself, when all the words are understandable but the idea is vague and the readership cannot understand it- then the translator should turn to referential level and the textual level is reformed. The text should be made understandable translator + addition or translator + info. E.g Could I have a Bloody Mary? Ar galeciau isgerti kokteili Bloody Mary? Ar……: degtine + pomidoru sultys? 3) cohesive level- linking 1st and 2nd levels. This is achieved through connective words: conjunctions, enumerations, repetitions, prepositions, the definite article, synonyms, theme and rheme, mood of the text. 4) natural level. It includes 2 aspects: a) sense; b) fluency. It involves absence of difficult words, complicated structures, idioms. How appropriate is the language in a certain situation- style, attitude, and mood).
Translation theory deals with communication, semantics, frame and reference (idea/ problem, text itself, contextual factors which reflect the problem. Translation procedure).
Most important relations between translation and other subjects: typological studies. The development of comparative linguistics. Studies in the grammatical structure (what structures are typical of a certain language); Extralinguistics, geographical linguistics.
3.Unit of translation, its relation to the text.
During the process of translation it is necessary to divide a text into units which form the text. A translator cannot memorize a very long text, thus if the text is not properly divided into certain parts, the quality of translation could be diminished, i.e. some lexemic units, word combinations of sentences may be inaccurately presented into the TL.
Vinay Darbelnet defined the unit of translation as the smallest segment of an utterance whose cohesion of signs is such that they must not be separately translated. According to Boryganova, the unit of translation is the smallest segment of the text carrying meaning, mas short as possible, as long as necessary.
The diction may depend upon the level of the text: phonemic, morphemic, lexemic and discourse/ text level.
1.at the phonemic level the unit of translation is a phoneme (a phoneme does not have a independent meaning). There are 2 ways of translating: transliteration (paraidinis vertimas)and transcription. In translating proper names both ways are used. E.g. Radley- Radlis (transliteration), Redlis (transcription acceptable to masculinum gender), Redli (transcription acceptable to feminine gender). E.g. George- Džordžas in translating proper nouns (Heath- Hytas, Hysas, Hitas, Hisas; th-> [s], [t]; ea-> [i] or [i:]. In translation in the phonemic level the form should correspond to the Lithuanian norms. E.g. Clintonas- Klintonas; Caritas- Karitas. To translate an English name Catford, for each phoneme of the English word we have to choose a phoneme, which is the nearest to a Lithuanian phoneme form the point of view of articulation and sound. This name in the Lithuanian language is pronounced and written as Ketfordas. The choice of the unit or the choices of the version depends upon the norm of the TL.
2.Morphemic level refers to suffixes, prefixes, and roots. Root words are free morphemes, prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes. The speaker should be aware of bound/ free morphemes and the plural forms. E.g. men- vyrai. The plural forms are morphemes too, bur irregular forms is a different case. They should be bound for people to understand.
3.Lexemic level. The unit of translation is a lexeme. The reader should take into consideration differences between the languages. Lexemes registered in dictionaries. Some problems are caused by: a) Pronouns. Some of them are retained, some not. As a rule, they are not translated. E.g. I looked at her and turned away- Pažiūrėjau į ją (due to inflection the pronoun is lost) ir nusisukau (away). It may seem out of place. Thus, the full retaining can serve only for stylistic purposes. b) the knowledge of phrasal words is important. Each prefix in Lithuanian has its own meaning. E.g. to get somebody on one’s brain- prisiminti. Phrases may be represented by one lexeme. In such a case it possesses many prefixes. E.g.: all of a sudden- staiga (1 word), on my way out- iseidamas. There is always a balance. Shorter translation is better. E.g. Jane and her mother were sort of snabbing her- Jai atrodė, kad jos buvo išpuikėlės. A simple sentence is replaced by a complex one: e.g. It was a (the meaning too weak to be retained) Saturday- Buvo šeštadienis (the article is lost because its meaning is too weak to be retained). But we met on a Saurday- susitikome vieną šeštadienį. So, at the lexemic level words may be omitted or retained.
4.The phrase level. The unit is a lexeme + a phrase. At this level there is a problem: we should pay attention to whether phrases are free combinations or bound (phraseological units). How to distinguish “to play with fire” (free phrase because every element carries its own meaning) meaning “matches”. When “danger” is introduced it becomes bound. “to play with fire”- meaning “danger” (bound); “to catch fire”- užsidegti (bound). “to put fire to”- uždegti (free, but not completely). So, at this level, the unit is a lexeme + a phrase.
5.The sentence level. Units are words (lexemes). We cannot exclude them. E.g. Too many cooks spoil the broth (sultinys)- Daug virėjų sugadina sultinį. When a sentence is accepted as a proverb, the translation is quite different: Daug auklių- vaikas be galvos. Situational correspondence is very important. E.g. Every dark cloud has a silver lining- Nėra padėties be išeities. Po nakties- diena. Keep off grass- vaikščioti draudžiama. Forbidden ways should be presented in a milder way. E.g. there’s a good boy- šaunuolis (in a certain context). The sentence level presents many difficulties in dialogues, informal speech.
6.The text level includes all the units mentioned. In translating poems, a poem is read 1st and only then the idea is being presented. Poems are translated at the text level. It is important to reflect the situation equivalently. If you have a text, you begin with lexemes. The choice of the unit depends upon the text. We usually start with lexemes, and then accept it or not, depending on whether it is a free combination or bound.
4. Meaning:its kinds and role in translation
Meaning (a relation) has been studied for a long time. The studies even go back to Plato, though definition was given only in the 20th ct. Meanings&words are related directly (onomatopoetic theory). Meaning is conventional&cannot be changed: thus, meaning is a free possibility to relate to objects, phenomena, etc.
Meaning is reflection of an object in a person`s mind. But we have different reflections (psychological approach). Here, reflection is an abstract notion. We have one/basic meaning&other meanings are derived. Relational approach - meaning is understood as relation to 3 surrounding objects:
1)Referential meaning-relation of a group of letters/sounds to an object. This is the basic, denotational meaning, also called lexical because it is recorded in the dictionary.
2)Pragmatic meaning-relation of the group of letters/sounds. It is called connotational&is studied by stylistics. Context, both linguistic & extra linguistic is important.
3)Syntactic/grammatical meaning-relation between the words (linguistic context). It is studied by syntax (how words are joined & make a sentence). Each language has its own syntactical structure &it is difficult to transfer it exactly.
The book „The Meaning of Meaning” by Orgden & Richards published in 1923 introduced 60meanings of the word meaning.
Referrential meaning-a correspondence between languages. There are such types of correspondences:
1)Full correspondences-a source language word has a dictionary correspondencein target language (one lexical meaning). Here belong proper nouns & geographical names. They are conventional:e.g. Homer-Homeras; France-Prancuzija. When the proper noun discloses certain character feature, T is difficult: e.g. Mr.Known-All - Visazinis (T or transcription are not accepted). Full correspondences include terms: e.g. laser-lazeris (by T & transcription). Names of months-conventional. But even terms may have several meanings: e.g. power-jega, galingumas, laipsnis.
2)Partial correspondences-we have to be careful what words come together. Some meanings are common, but others differ: e.g. conductor-dirigentas, konduktorius, laidininkas; house-namas; home-namai, but The House of Prayer-Maldos Namai; Culture Centre-Kulturos namai; Children Homes-Vaiku namai; Teacher`s club-Mokytoju namai; Student`s club-Studentu atstovybe.
3)Zero correspondences-the meaning which cannot be conveyed. Here belong culture bound notions; also neologism, dialectical words, slang, colloquialisms, names of trademarks, institutions, archaic forms, historical words. E.g. backbenchers-sedintis uzpakinese eilese; the speaker-spykeris. Types of texts determine choice of pragmatic meaning.
5. Norms of translation. Levels of text equivalence.
Even translation is estimated by various parameters publishers, readership Estimation is based on criteria norm that can be objective or subjective. Norma-a certain standart accepted by a community. Adequate/good T balances on the boundary between science & art 50years ago. Since then T has been estimated from various points of view: linguistic (grammar, syntax, morphology), psychological, literary (refers to impact of T to the readership), philosophical, structural, aesthetic, social-linguistic (deals with pragmatics). Each of these aspects must correspond to the norm the reader posseses. Filin (Rus) developed another definition of norm: Norm-a linguistic means (word/phrase/sentence) approved by a certain language community at a certain time used in a definite situation. Norm is made of several norms: norm in language, norm in style, pragmatic norm, communicative norm (whether the idea is communicated properly).
J. Jackson`s devision: based on intensity of the norms (strictness).
1. Basic/Primary norms. They are mandatory for all instances of translation. They have maximum intensity, and minimum freedom.
2. Secondary norms/tendencies. Predominant in certain type of translation. Not so strict, not mandatory.
3. Tolerated/Permitted norms. Has minimum intensity (e.g. translation of expressions, proverbs). Understanding is the main goal. They depend on the text or (how much he knows) & on the type of text (scientific, fiction). Divergences from the norm are quite common. They depend on the translator (how much he knows) and on the type of the text (scientific, fiction).
When we say that the written/uttered text is translated into another language, we accept the fact that the translation text is equivalent to the original. We can define equivalence as a relation of two units, having the same value and meaning. Translation unit can be a separate word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph or the whole text. E.g. is understood as a relation between languages, not the texts.
1)The theory of corresponding equivalence was introduced by J. Recker. In this theory example is understood as relation between lexical units.
2)T. Ketford introduced the extralinguistic situation, it relates more to semantics of the text.
3)Eugene Neider introduced dynamic equivalence. He pointed out the importance of considering the readership (understanding, attitudes, feelings).
V.N. Komisarov distinguishes 5 levels of equivalence:
1. Communicative level - the most general understanding of equivalence should be achieved first and foremost. The translator should always see the final text. Communicative aim is a certain communicative attitude of speech.
2. Situational - we want to achieve the same situational as in language1. Situational is a certain amount of relations between references. The same sit can be expressed by different means in different language.
e.g. He answers the phone-Atsiliepti
3. Syntactic equivalence. At this level equivalence is achieved by keeping the syntactic structures. The similarity between the original and translation is greater than it has been before: the structure is maintained and the same features as in the original are chosen to describe (characterize) the situation. Their arrangement and kind of their relations is changed only.
e.g. That will not be good for you. Tai tau gali blogai baigtis.
4. Level of syntactical structures and combinations. Analogical syntactical structures are retained. E.g. He had experienced a curious pleasure in attributing every kind of wickedness to this man. Keistą pasitenkinimą jautė, suteikdamas jam visokiausių blogų bruožų.
5. Lexemic level/Level of lexical units. Both grammatical and lexical units are present. The lowest unit.
This equivalent theory revealed the variety and complexity of relations between the original and the translation. It is necessary according to this theory to go through all these levels, starting with the lowest.
Gak(h) and J.Levy theory:
1)Formal equivalence - Lexical, grammatical. Meaning in L1 and L2 is presented by a parallel construction.
2)Meaning equivalence - the same meaning is conveyed by different linguistic structures
3)Situational - Situational, semantic
A.D. Šveitzer, his pattern is based on retaining the semantic invariant.
1)Syntactic equivalence - attention is paid to lexemes and their combinability.
2)Semantic equivalence - relation of linguistic and reference. Introduces situational aspect.
3)Pragmatic equivalence - relation of linguistic signs and people. Belongs to the highest level - Communicative.
Ways of achieving equivalence:
1)Borrowing. When there is no referent in a target language. We transliterate a word (transcription-adding the flexion or not). The type of the word is important too as to some we can`t put a L2 ending. e.g. Euro-Euras. Loan translation - form is accepted but the meaning is translated. e.g. Names of the week come from Latin.
2)Literal translation. Basic translation - Lexical correspondences.
3)Transposition. Syntax including Semantics (the new and given info presentation)
4)Modulation. Semantic + Situational translation. Translators attitude is expressed. e.g. Manau, kad neateis. I don`t think he`ll come.
5)Equivalence. No correspondence. e.g. To beat about the bush.- Iš tuščio į kiaurą.
6)Adaptation. The extreme limit of translation. The culture is completely different, thus the new equivalence should be created.
6. Transformation in translation. Kinds and employment.
A transformation in translation is a change of a linguistic unit. Transformation is applied to a certain pattern of relationships between the SL and the TL text at lexical, morphological and syntactical level. Transformation is a change of a linguistic unit in a SL and its correspondence to the TL. Transformation is divided into 4 types: 1)transposition, 2)replacement, 3)addition, 4)omission.
1)Transposition-is the change of position, typical of a syntactic level. It is employed because languages have different structures. Transposition is related to theme and rheme theory. Theme-smth that is given, rheme-new info.e.g There is a key (R)on the table (T) - Ant stalo (T) guli raktas (R). New info in lithuanian goes at the end of the sentence. Transposition is a change f word order (theme and rheme). English -fixed word order(the 1st word is important), lithuanian-free word order(the last word is most important). 2)Replacement-is the most common type of transformation. We can have 1 to 1 replacement, 1 to 2 replacement, 2 to 1 replacement. Grammatical: a) word forms (plural-sing) “the lives of common people-paprastų žmonių gyvenimą); b) passive-active (the door was opened-durys atsidarė); c)noun-verb (he is an early riser-jis anksti keliasi); d)clause-word (our hope is -tikimės); e)subject-adv mod (the tent sleeps-palapinėje telpa); f) simple sent-complex ( I want you to speak-noriu, kad kalbėtum); g) complex sent-simple (I started singing when I was ten - pradėjau dainuoti dešimties metų). Syntactic replacement: a) coordination-subordination; b)synthetic-asynthetic ( conjunction or no conjunction); c) unification and division ( unification-TL sentences unites two SL sent, division- a SL sentence divided into several TL sentences). Lexical replacement: 1) Concretisation-SL with a wide meaning is replaced by the word in TL with a narrow meaning. ( e.g. put on- užsidėti, užsivilkti, užsisegti…)N - thing, point, stuff; Adj. - nice, bad, fine; Verb - do, to be, say, get, come. a) linguistic concretization- no lexical item with the same meaning, that is why we must use concr., b) contextual - conditioned by a context (to avoid repetiton). 2) Generalisation - SL has a narrow meaning of a word, while TL has a wide one, (e.g. leg-koja, foot-pėda, pirštas-finger, toe). Generalization is also conditioned by pragmatic factor. 3)Cause-Result replacement/antonymic- SL suggests the cause which is translated as a result in another language, e.g I don’t blame you- aš jūsų nekaltinu (heavy word), aš suprantu….(safer way). He is dead now-jo nebėra. 3) Compensation - when no direct equivalent is observed. Here the semantic problem arises, as sometimes it is impossible to find the exact word. E.g He don’t, she don’t, aksfaltas, xory, xoreme. 3) Addition - is acused by different factors. Very often it is used in the case of lexical incompleteness-determined by the lexical incompleteness in SL (e.g oil talks-derybos dėl naftos, pay claim-reikalavimas pakelti algą). 4) Omission-is used to ensure a greater degree of comprehension, to express the idea by the most important words, or to omit what was used too much, e.g. a little while later I had…-tebeturėjau..
7. Translation patterns/models.
A model/pattern is a scheme in linguistics. It is general/abstract scheme, representing structural characteristics of an object. It is a general construct of an object (the outer and inner side). Morphological patterns: e.g. SPO-(subject, predicate, object)-model of sentence. SP=NP+VP; SPO adv; AN(adj, noun)=noun phrase; MN(modifier, noun).
Syntax is full of patterns, translation as well. Models are useful to facilitate the work of translator. General patterns: 1)to know the author; 2)to know the text; 3)style; 4)translator’s impression.
Patterns in translation: 1)The Communicative pattern was introduced by O. Kade in 1968.
1) S (sender/writer) - R (receiver/readership) >2) T(translator) >3) S1(sender1) - R1(receiver1)
1) step1-to choose the text, this determines whether you are successful; step 2 - understanding and interpretation, explaining to oneself the linguistic, situational and semantic matter of the text.
2) Change of code-the whole process. Within it there is psycholinguistic pattern.
3) Modification of the new text (TLT), the readership is very important
2) Situational pattern is meant only for solving problems related in certain situations. It was introduced by Komisarov, based on three stages:
Original text-SL (Reality1-of the source language text, the author, the author’s perception of the language) <> Translator <> Translation-TG (Reality2-target language peculiarities)
3)The dynamic equivalence pattern. Introduced by E. Nida
SL (analysis) - Translator (transfer) - Receptor language (modification)
4)The transformational, semantic pattern. It is a modification of the previous pattern. It was introduced by prof. Barkudarov:
SL (analysis - a lot of attention to componential analysis >> transfer >> receptor lang (restructing)
5) Psychological pattern introduced by Russian linguists. Nobody knows what is happening in the brains.
8. Translation in the teaching process.
Reasons for using translation in the classroom: 1) Influence of the mother tongue - it helps to understand the influence of one language on the other and to correct errors of habit. It also enables to explore the potential of both languages-their strengths and weaknesses. 2)Naturalness of the activity - translation is a natural activity going on all the time everywhere - why not inside the classroom? 3)The skills aspect-we need to be able to communicate in two ways: into and from the foreign language. Translation is ideally suited for practicing this vital skill. 4) Usefulness- as well as other activities, it also develops the four communicative skills. Used in proper creative way it can be used to develop speaking and listening skills ( students can work in groups for oral discussion). 5)It develops accuracy, clarity and flexibility - it trains the learners to search (flexibility) for most appropriate words (accuracy) to convey what is meant (clarity). 6) Teacher can select material to illustrate particular aspects of language and structure with which the students have difficulty. 7) Translation in classroom should concentrate on five main areas: a)context and register; b) word order and reference; c) time, tense, mood, aspect; d) concepts and notions; e) idioms in one language and in another. Oral translation is more useful than written, because students learn from each others mistakes.
9. Characteristics of the Translator/Interpreter in translating.
Both for translator and interpreter: 1) perfect knowledge of foreign and native languages; 2) ability to obtain knowledge of the language and extralinguistics; 3) ability to turn the acquired knowledge t another field of knowledge ( this refers to the translators of specific texts). Not everyone knowing a foreign language can translate equally well both orally and in written form. A person perfectly translating written texts may get confused in front of the audience. Thus both, translator and interpreter should have certain specific features: For interpreter: 1) good operational (short-time memory); 2) lack of fear, self-confidence; 3) sociability; 4) quick, dynamic reaction towards what has been said; 5) loud, clear voice of pleasant temper, good pronunciation; 6) analytical thinking; 7) ability to find a way out of any difficult situation; 8) must be heard, but not seen; 9) proper appearance; 10) interpreters should be loyal people, who won’t use the heard secret info to profit from it. For translator: 1) doesn’t have to have a good operational memory; 2)possess time; 3) has to possess sources (dictionary); 4) has to find a key to every work, to make the translation as accurate as possible, to convey all the specific features and ideas; 5) should be a psychologist to see what the readers want from the text; 6) choose the text which suits his temperament, abilities, intelligence.
10. Translation in Lithuania: history and problems.
The independent ways, skill, habits discovered by the translators in the course f history are the basis for the traditions of translation. The historically formed methods of translating enable the translators to exactly convey meaning of the original. The history of Lithuanian traditions is dated back to the 15-16th centuries when M. Mazvydas “Katekizmas” appeared in 1547. The translations of that time were of religious content and didactic character. The translators had no aim to make their translations professional. As for their style, they are characterized by the abundance of colloquial words and expressions and proverbs. Very few translations of imaginative literature. The translators expanded the potentials of the colloquial language - they didn’t look for any artificial forms but made use of the living language. In spite of the fact that there was no sufficient theoretical basis, these translations started the Lithuania’s tradition of translation.
19th c. I.Ivinskis, V.Kudirka. translators were mainly writers. By translations they wanted to express their own thoughts besides conveying the author’s ideas. That is why the translators were rather free. The artistic value is very high, with soma exceptions (Kudirka).
20th c. J.Janonis, B.Sruoga, J.Tumas-Vaižgantas.
The translation of high artistic value (professional) appeared as late as in the middle of the 20th century. The school of translation was established in the 1960’s by such professional translators as D. Urbas, V. Petrauskas, J. Naujokaitis. D. Urbas established the formal principles of translation into Lithuanian language. His main concerns were to preserve the native language norms established by J. Balčikonis, J. Jablonskis, as well as simplicity, clarity and fluency.
At that time also the main requirements for a translator were formulated. A translator should posses a sufficient educational background, the knowledge of specific field, an excellent knowledge and command of both languages, the ability to evaluate reality, etc.
There is no translator’s training institution. While learning a foreign language at the university the emphasis is on the foreign language. The students get only basic knowledge about translation theory and practice. Besides, little attention is paid to the native language. For these reasons to translate the imaginative literature is at the beginning a hard task.
Problems:1) university gives very little practical and theoretical knowledge for the future translators. Worse is the fact that studying a foreign language, students often neglect their native language. 2) nowadays translators startle their readers by their ignorance and literal translation. That is why so many books are translated by people who haven’t got the slightest idea of the theory of translation, its principles
Ways of solving them: it is very important for the translator to choose a text that would suit his/her temperament, talent, taste, abilities and even intelligence. The duty of translator is to find a key to every work, to make a translation as accurate as possible, to convey all the specific features of the original text, its mood and originality and conception of author.
Patiko (0)Rodyk draugams